The Various Regional Languages of Turkey: A Comprehensive Overview

The Various Regional Languages of Turkey: A Comprehensive Overview

Are you interested in learning about the rich linguistic diversity that exists in Turkey? Look no further! In this comprehensive article, we will provide you with an in-depth overview of the various regional languages spoken across the country. From Kurdish to Arabic, Laz to Zazaki, Turkey is home to a plethora of languages that have shaped its cultural tapestry over centuries. Join us as we delve into the fascinating world of Turkish regional languages and discover the unique characteristics and influences that make each one of them so captivating. Whether you are a language enthusiast, a traveler, or simply curious about Turkey’s linguistic heritage, this article is the ultimate guide to understanding the diverse linguistic landscape of this remarkable country.

Introduction to Regional Languages of Turkey

Turkey is a country known for its rich cultural heritage and diverse linguistic landscape. Apart from the official language, Turkish, there are several regional languages spoken by various communities across the country. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the various regional languages of Turkey, exploring both their diversity and historical background.

Overview of Language Diversity in Turkey

Turkey is home to a wide range of languages, reflecting its long history and geographical location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The linguistic diversity in Turkey is a result of the country’s multicultural heritage and the influence of different civilizations that have inhabited the region over time.

One of the most prominent regional languages in Turkey is Kurdish, which is spoken by a significant Kurdish population mainly residing in the southeastern part of the country. Kurdish belongs to the Indo-European language family and has several dialects, including Kurmanji, Sorani, and Zaza.

Another regional language spoken in Turkey is Arabic, particularly in the Hatay province bordering Syria. Arabic is widely used by the Arab communities living in this region. Additionally, there are communities speaking languages such as Laz, Georgian, Circassian, Armenian, and Greek, among others.

The regional languages of Turkey not only reflect the linguistic diversity but also serve as a testament to the country’s multiculturalism and the coexistence of different ethnic groups throughout its history.

Historical Background of Regional Languages in Turkey

The historical background of regional languages in Turkey can be traced back to ancient times. The Anatolian region, where modern-day Turkey is located, has been inhabited by various civilizations, including the Hittites, Phrygians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Ottomans. Each of these civilizations has left its linguistic mark on the region.

During the Ottoman Empire, Turkish became the dominant language, but other languages continued to be spoken in different regions. The empire’s vast territories encompassed diverse ethnic and linguistic communities, allowing for the preservation of various regional languages.

However, with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, there was an increased emphasis on a unified Turkish identity and language. This led to a period of linguistic assimilation, where regional languages faced challenges and restrictions.

In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of linguistic diversity in Turkey, and efforts have been made to protect and promote regional languages. These efforts include the introduction of bilingual education programs and the establishment of cultural institutions that support the preservation and development of regional languages.

Overall, the regional languages of Turkey play a significant role in the country’s cultural mosaic and reflect its historical and geographical diversity. They are an integral part of Turkey’s linguistic heritage, contributing to the unique identity of different communities across the nation.

Major Regional Languages of Turkey


Kurdish is one of the major regional languages spoken in Turkey. It is primarily used by the Kurdish population, which constitutes a significant minority in the country. Kurdish belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family and has several dialects, including Kurmanji, Sorani, and Zaza. It has its own unique alphabet known as the Kurdish alphabet, which is based on the Latin script.


Arabic is another prominent regional language spoken in Turkey. It is mainly used by the Arab minority living in the country. Arabic is a Semitic language and is widely known as the language of the Quran. Although Turkish is the official language of Turkey, Arabic holds a significant cultural and religious importance, especially among the Muslim population. Arabic script is commonly used for writing in religious contexts and in some Arabic-speaking communities.


Zaza is a regional language spoken in eastern Turkey, primarily by the Zaza people. It belongs to the Northwestern Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family and has its own distinct dialects. Zaza is primarily an oral language and does not have a standardized writing system. However, efforts are being made to develop a written form of Zaza using the Latin script.

These three regional languages, Kurdish, Arabic, and Zaza, contribute to the linguistic diversity of Turkey and reflect the rich cultural heritage of the different communities residing in the country.

Lesser-Known Regional Languages of Turkey


Laz is one of the lesser-known regional languages of Turkey, spoken primarily in the eastern Black Sea region. It belongs to the Kartvelian language family, which also includes Georgian and Mingrelian. Laz has a rich history and is believed to have originated in ancient Colchis. Despite being classified as an endangered language, efforts are being made to preserve and promote the use of Laz through cultural events, education programs, and online resources.


Georgian, another lesser-known regional language of Turkey, is spoken by the Georgian community residing in the northeastern part of the country. It is a South Caucasian language with a unique script that dates back to the 5th century. Georgian has a distinct grammar structure and a rich literary tradition. Although it is primarily spoken in Georgia, the language has managed to maintain its presence in Turkey through cultural exchanges and close ties between the Georgian and Turkish communities.


Circassian is yet another interesting lesser-known regional language spoken in Turkey. It is part of the Northwest Caucasian language family and is primarily spoken by the Circassian diaspora, which settled in Turkey after the Caucasian War. The Circassian language has several dialects, with the Adyghe and Kabardian dialects being the most widely spoken. Despite facing challenges in terms of preservation and use, Circassian language and culture are celebrated through community events, language courses, and cultural associations in Turkey.

These lesser-known regional languages of Turkey, Laz, Georgian, and Circassian, showcase the linguistic diversity and cultural richness within the country. While they may not be as widely spoken as Turkish, their importance in preserving heritage and identity should not be underestimated. Efforts to document, educate, and revitalize these languages are crucial for maintaining the cultural tapestry of Turkey.

Endangered Regional Languages of Turkey


Turoyo is an endangered regional language spoken by the Assyrian community in Turkey. It is primarily found in the southeastern region of the country, particularly in the province of Mardin. Turoyo belongs to the Neo-Aramaic language family and has its roots in ancient Aramaic, which was widely spoken in the region centuries ago.

Unfortunately, Turoyo is facing significant challenges in maintaining its vitality. The Assyrian community has been facing various socio-political pressures, leading to a decline in the number of Turoyo speakers. The younger generation tends to shift towards the dominant Turkish language, causing a gradual erosion of Turoyo’s usage and proficiency.

Efforts are being made by linguistic and cultural organizations to preserve and revitalize Turoyo. These include language revitalization programs, cultural events, and educational initiatives aimed at promoting Turoyo among the Assyrian youth. Despite the challenges, the Assyrian community remains determined to safeguard their language and cultural heritage.


Hemshin is another endangered regional language spoken in Turkey, primarily by the Hemshinli people. The Hemshinli community is a distinct ethnic group with roots in the historical Hemşin region, located in the northeastern part of Turkey, near the Black Sea.

Hemshin is a unique language that blends elements of Armenian, Turkish, and other local dialects. It has evolved over centuries through interactions between different cultures and languages in the region. However, due to various factors such as migration, urbanization, and language shift, the number of fluent Hemshin speakers has been declining.

Efforts are underway to document and preserve Hemshin as a valuable part of Turkey’s linguistic diversity. Researchers, linguists, and community organizations are working together to create language resources, develop educational materials, and promote the use of Hemshin in cultural events and gatherings. These initiatives aim to raise awareness about the importance of Hemshin and encourage its intergenerational transmission.

Rumelian Turkish

Rumelian Turkish refers to the regional dialects and variations of the Turkish language spoken in the western regions of Turkey, historically known as Rumelia. These dialects have significant linguistic differences from the standard Turkish spoken in central Anatolia.

While Rumelian Turkish is not necessarily endangered in the same sense as Turoyo or Hemshin, it faces challenges due to the dominance of the standardized Turkish language promoted by the education system and media. As a result, the younger generations in these regions are more inclined to adopt the standard variety, leading to a gradual decline in the usage and preservation of Rumelian Turkish.

Efforts are being made to document and study the various dialects of Rumelian Turkish before they disappear completely. Linguists and researchers are conducting fieldwork, collecting oral histories, and creating language resources to ensure that the richness and diversity of Rumelian Turkish are not lost. Additionally, cultural events and local initiatives aim to raise awareness and pride among the speakers of Rumelian Turkish, encouraging its continued use and transmission to future generations.

Preservation and Revitalization Efforts

Government Policies and Initiatives

The Turkish government has recognized the importance of preserving and revitalizing the various regional languages spoken in Turkey. In order to achieve this, they have implemented several policies and initiatives.

One of the key initiatives is the establishment of language departments within universities across the country. These departments focus on conducting research, developing language preservation strategies, and providing education and training for individuals interested in learning and teaching regional languages.

Additionally, the government has implemented language programs in schools to promote the learning and usage of regional languages among younger generations. These programs aim to create awareness and appreciation for the linguistic diversity of Turkey, encouraging students to embrace their regional language and culture.

Furthermore, the Turkish government has also provided financial support for the publication and distribution of books and educational materials in regional languages. This effort aims to ensure the availability of resources that facilitate language learning and usage within local communities.

Community Organizations and Language Advocacy

Apart from government initiatives, there are several community organizations and language advocacy groups actively working towards the preservation and revitalization of regional languages in Turkey.

These organizations play a crucial role in promoting linguistic diversity and fostering a sense of pride among speakers of regional languages. They organize cultural events, language classes, and workshops to raise awareness about the importance of preserving and using regional languages.

Furthermore, these organizations also collaborate with universities, schools, and government institutions to develop language learning materials, dictionaries, and online resources. They actively engage with local communities and encourage language enthusiasts to participate in language preservation projects.

Challenges and Future Prospects

Despite the efforts made by the government and community organizations, there are several challenges that hinder the preservation and revitalization of regional languages in Turkey.

One major challenge is the dominance of the Turkish language. Turkish is the official language of Turkey, and its widespread usage can overshadow regional languages. This poses a threat to the survival of these languages, as younger generations may choose to prioritize learning Turkish over their regional language.

Additionally, the lack of standardized writing systems for some regional languages makes it difficult to develop educational materials and promote literacy in those languages. This further hampers efforts to preserve and revitalize these languages.

However, there is still hope for the future of regional languages in Turkey. The increasing recognition of linguistic diversity and the efforts put forth by government initiatives and community organizations indicate a positive trajectory. With continued support, awareness, and collaboration, there is potential for the preservation and revitalization of regional languages to thrive in Turkey.

The various regional languages in Turkey offer a fascinating insight into the country’s cultural diversity and historical heritage. From Kurdish to Arabic, Laz to Circassian, the linguistic landscape of Turkey is incredibly rich and diverse. These languages not only reflect the unique identities and traditions of different regions but also contribute to the overall tapestry of Turkish society. The preservation and promotion of these regional languages are crucial for fostering inclusivity and understanding among different communities within Turkey. By recognizing and celebrating the linguistic diversity of the country, Turkey can embrace its multicultural heritage and strengthen its bonds as a nation.

Share This Post: