What are the top 3 languages spoken in Croatia?


Are you curious about the top three languages spoken in Croatia? In this article, we will explore the linguistic landscape of Croatia and delve into the most commonly spoken languages by its inhabitants. Discover the cultural diversity and linguistic heritage of this beautiful European country as we uncover the top three languages that dominate conversations and interactions in Croatia. Whether you are planning a trip, conducting research, or simply expanding your knowledge, this article will provide you with valuable insights into the linguistic tapestry of Croatia.

Overview of languages spoken in Croatia

Official language of Croatia

The official and national language of Croatia is Croatian. It is a South Slavic language and is spoken by the majority of the population in the country. Croatian is also the official language of the European Union. It is written using the Latin alphabet.

Regional languages spoken in Croatia

Apart from Croatian, there are several regional languages spoken in different parts of Croatia. These regional languages are a reflection of the diverse cultural and historical influences on the country. Here are a few examples of regional languages spoken in Croatia:

  1. Istro-Romanian: Istro-Romanian is a Romance language that is spoken by a small community in the Istrian Peninsula of Croatia. It has its roots in Latin and is closely related to Italian and Romanian.

  2. Italian: Due to historical reasons and the proximity to Italy, Italian is spoken by a significant number of people in some regions of Croatia, especially in Istria and Dalmatia. It is recognized as a minority language in these areas.

  3. Serbian: Serbian is another language spoken by a considerable number of people in Croatia, particularly in regions bordering Serbia. It is a South Slavic language, closely related to Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.

These regional languages often coexist with Croatian and contribute to the linguistic diversity of the country. While Croatian remains the dominant language in Croatia, the presence of these regional languages adds to the cultural richness and heritage of the nation.

Croatian language

Characteristics of the Croatian language

The Croatian language is the official and native language of Croatia, spoken by the majority of its population. It belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic language family. Here are some key characteristics of the Croatian language:

  1. Alphabet: Croatian uses the Latin alphabet with a few additional diacritic letters. The alphabet consists of 30 letters, including all the letters of the English alphabet plus letters such as č, ž, š, đ, and lj.

  2. Phonetics and Pronunciation: Croatian pronunciation is generally phonetic, which means that words are pronounced as they are spelled. It has a relatively straightforward pronunciation system, with each letter having a consistent sound. This makes it easier for learners to master the language’s pronunciation.

  3. Grammar: Croatian has a complex grammar system, similar to other Slavic languages. It has grammatical cases, which are used to indicate the role of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in a sentence. The language also has three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Verbs are conjugated based on tense, mood, and person.

  4. Vocabulary: Croatian vocabulary is influenced by various sources, including Slavic roots, loanwords from other languages, especially German, Italian, and Turkish, and more recent borrowings from English. The vocabulary is rich and diverse, allowing speakers to express themselves with precision.

Dialects of the Croatian language

The Croatian language exhibits several dialects, which vary in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. The dialectal variations are often influenced by regional, historical, and cultural factors. Some of the major dialect groups within the Croatian language are:

  1. Kajkavian: This dialect is primarily spoken in northern and northwestern Croatia. It is characterized by its soft pronunciation and distinct vocabulary. The Kajkavian dialect has had a significant influence on the standard Croatian language, particularly in terms of vocabulary.

  2. Chakavian: The Chakavian dialect is spoken along the Adriatic coast, mainly in Istria, Kvarner, and Dalmatia. It has a unique pronunciation and grammar, differing from the standard Croatian language. Chakavian dialect speakers often use specific words and phrases that are not commonly found in other dialects.

  3. Shtokavian: Shtokavian is the most widespread dialect group and serves as the basis for the standard Croatian language. It is spoken in central Croatia, Slavonia, and parts of Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia. This dialect is considered the most official and prestigious form of Croatian, as it is used in literature, education, and media.

These dialects, while distinct, are mutually intelligible, allowing speakers from different regions of Croatia to understand each other. They contribute to the linguistic diversity and cultural richness of the Croatian language.

Other commonly spoken languages in Croatia


English is widely spoken and understood in Croatia, especially in tourist areas and larger cities. Due to the increasing number of international visitors and the importance of English as a global language, many Croatians have learned English as a second language. In fact, English proficiency among the younger generation is quite high, making it easy for travelers to communicate and get around.

Whether you are looking for directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or seeking assistance from locals, you will often find someone who can understand and respond to you in English. This is particularly advantageous for tourists who may not be familiar with the Croatian language.


German is another language that is commonly spoken in Croatia, particularly among older generations. Many Croatians learned German during their school years, and there are still communities where German is spoken as a heritage language.

In some regions of Croatia, especially in areas with a history of German influence, you may come across people who can communicate in German. While the younger population may not be as fluent in German as they are in English, you can still find individuals who have a basic understanding of the language.

If you are a German speaker visiting Croatia, knowing a few basic phrases in German may come in handy when interacting with locals or seeking information in certain areas.

Overall, while Croatian is the official language of Croatia, English and German are also commonly spoken and understood, making it easier for tourists and visitors to communicate and navigate their way around the country.

The top three languages spoken in Croatia are Croatian, Serbian, and Italian. Croatian is the official language of the country and is spoken by the majority of the population. Serbian is also widely spoken, especially in regions with a significant Serb minority. Italian is spoken in some parts of Istria and along the Adriatic coast, due to historical and cultural ties with Italy. These three languages reflect the diverse linguistic landscape of Croatia and highlight the country’s rich cultural heritage.

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