What countries speak Breton?

Introduction to Countries that Speak Breton

Are you curious about the countries where Breton is spoken? Look no further! This article will provide you with a comprehensive overview of the countries where Breton, a Celtic language with a rich cultural heritage, is spoken. Whether you are a language enthusiast or planning a trip, understanding the geographical distribution of Breton speakers will surely enhance your knowledge and experience. So, let’s delve into the fascinating world of Breton-speaking countries and broaden our horizons.

Breton Language Overview

History of the Breton Language

Breton is a Celtic language that is primarily spoken in the region of Brittany in Northwestern France. It has a rich history that dates back to the 5th or 6th century when Celtic settlers from Britain migrated to this area. The language has evolved over time, influenced by various factors such as contact with other languages and political events.

During the Middle Ages, Breton was widely spoken throughout Brittany and was even the language of the ruling class. However, the language faced challenges in the following centuries due to the French government’s efforts to promote French as the official language. As a result, the use of Breton declined, and it was even suppressed during certain periods.

Classification of the Breton Language

Breton belongs to the Celtic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is specifically classified as a Brythonic language, along with Welsh and Cornish. Brythonic languages were once spoken throughout Britain but are now only found in specific regions. Breton shares similarities with these languages, especially Welsh, due to their common Celtic roots.

Within the Brythonic branch, Breton is further classified into three main dialects: Cornouaillais, Léonard, and Trégorrois. These dialects have their own distinct characteristics, including variations in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. However, speakers from different dialects can generally understand each other with some adjustments.

Status of the Breton Language

The status of the Breton language has been a topic of concern in recent years. While it is still spoken by a significant number of people in Brittany, its overall usage has declined. The French government has taken measures to support the preservation and revitalization of Breton, recognizing its cultural and historical importance.

Today, efforts are being made to promote the use of Breton in education, media, and public life. Bilingual schools and language immersion programs have been established to ensure younger generations have the opportunity to learn and speak Breton. Additionally, there are organizations and initiatives dedicated to documenting and promoting the language’s use in various domains.

Despite these efforts, the future of the Breton language remains uncertain. It faces challenges such as the dominance of French in daily life and the influence of globalization. However, the passion of the Breton-speaking community and ongoing support from cultural institutions give hope for the continued vitality of this unique Celtic language.

Countries where Breton is Spoken


Breton is primarily spoken in the region of Brittany, which is located in the northwest of France. As one of the six regional languages of France, Breton holds a significant cultural and linguistic importance. It is estimated that around 200,000 people in France speak Breton, with the majority of speakers residing in Brittany. The Breton language has a rich history and is actively taught and promoted in schools, universities, and cultural organizations throughout the region.

United Kingdom

Breton is also spoken in certain regions of the United Kingdom, particularly in Cornwall. Cornwall, located in the southwestern part of England, shares historical and cultural ties with Brittany. The language spoken in Cornwall, known as Cornish, is closely related to Breton, as both languages belong to the Brythonic branch of the Celtic language family. Although the number of Breton speakers in the UK is relatively small, efforts are being made to revive and promote the language through initiatives such as language classes, festivals, and cultural events.


Breton has also found its way to Canada, specifically in the province of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia, which means "New Scotland" in Latin, was originally settled by Scottish immigrants, many of whom were Gaelic speakers. These Scottish settlers brought their language and culture with them, including their Celtic roots. As a result, the community of Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia has preserved and maintained the Breton language, creating a unique linguistic and cultural heritage. Despite the challenges of language shift and assimilation, there are still individuals and organizations dedicated to preserving and revitalizing Breton in Canada.

The Breton language is predominantly spoken in the northwest region of France, specifically in the historical region of Brittany. Despite its declining number of speakers, efforts are being made to revive and preserve the language through various educational initiatives and cultural events. While Breton is not widely spoken outside of Brittany, there are also small communities of Breton speakers in other countries such as the United States and Canada, primarily among descendants of Breton immigrants. With continued support and interest, the Breton language has the potential to endure and flourish both within its traditional homeland and among its diaspora communities around the world.

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