What countries use Bulgarian as their primary language?

Introduction: What Countries Use Bulgarian as their Primary Language?

Are you curious to know which countries use Bulgarian as their primary language? In this article, we will explore the countries where Bulgarian is spoken as the main language. Bulgarian, a South Slavic language, is the official language of Bulgaria and is widely spoken by its population. However, it is also spoken by significant communities in neighboring countries and beyond. Join us as we dive into the fascinating world of Bulgarian-speaking countries and discover the linguistic and cultural diversity they offer.

Countries where Bulgarian is the official language


Bulgaria is a Southeast European country that uses Bulgarian as its official language. Situated in the Balkans, it is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. With a population of approximately 7 million people, Bulgaria is known for its rich history, diverse culture, and stunning natural landscapes.

Bulgarian, also known as Bulgarian Standard Language, is a South Slavic language and is spoken by the majority of the population in Bulgaria. It is a member of the Slavic language family, which includes other languages such as Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish. Bulgarian has its own unique alphabet called the Cyrillic script, which was developed in the 9th century and has been used for writing the language ever since.

North Macedonia

North Macedonia, formerly known as the Republic of Macedonia, is another country where Bulgarian is recognized as an official language. It is located in the Balkan Peninsula and shares borders with Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, Albania to the west, and Serbia and Kosovo to the north. North Macedonia has a population of around 2 million people.

In North Macedonia, Bulgarian is spoken by a significant portion of the population, particularly in areas close to the Bulgarian border. The language has historical and cultural significance in the country, and there are communities that primarily use Bulgarian for communication and education. It is worth noting that the language spoken in North Macedonia is closely related to Bulgarian and shares many similarities.


Moldova, a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, is the third country where Bulgarian is considered an official language. It is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. Moldova has a population of approximately 3.5 million people.

Bulgarian is one of the recognized languages in Moldova due to the historical presence of Bulgarian communities in the region. Although not as widely spoken as in Bulgaria or North Macedonia, it still holds significance, particularly in certain areas of the country. The language serves as a cultural link and is an integral part of the linguistic diversity in Moldova.

In summary, Bulgarian is the official language in Bulgaria, North Macedonia, and Moldova. These countries have their own unique cultural, historical, and linguistic contexts, but Bulgarian plays a significant role in their societies, contributing to the rich tapestry of languages in the region.

Countries where Bulgarian is spoken as a minority language


Greece is one of the countries where Bulgarian is spoken as a minority language. Located in the southeastern part of Europe, Greece shares a border with Bulgaria. Due to historical factors and migration patterns, there is a significant Bulgarian-speaking population in certain regions of Greece, especially in the northern part of the country. These areas have been influenced by the Bulgarian language and culture, leading to the presence of Bulgarian as a minority language.


Turkey is another country where Bulgarian is spoken as a minority language. Geographically, Bulgaria and Turkey share a border, which has facilitated cultural and linguistic interactions between the two countries. In certain regions of Turkey, particularly in the border areas, there is a Bulgarian-speaking community. This linguistic minority has preserved the Bulgarian language over generations, maintaining their unique cultural identity within the broader Turkish society.


Serbia, a neighboring country of Bulgaria, is also home to a Bulgarian-speaking minority. The proximity of the two nations has resulted in a linguistic and cultural exchange between Bulgaria and Serbia. In some regions of Serbia, especially in areas close to the Bulgarian border, Bulgarian is spoken by a significant number of people. This linguistic minority has contributed to the diversity of languages present in Serbia, adding to the rich tapestry of the country’s multicultural society.

In conclusion, while Bulgarian is primarily spoken in Bulgaria, there are several neighboring countries where it is also spoken as a minority language. Greece, Turkey, and Serbia all have Bulgarian-speaking communities, influenced by historical, geographical, and cultural factors. These linguistic minorities contribute to the cultural diversity and heritage of these countries, showcasing the enduring presence of the Bulgarian language beyond its borders.

The article "What countries use Bulgarian as their primary language?" provides a comprehensive overview of the countries where Bulgarian is spoken as the primary language. It highlights the significance of Bulgarian as a linguistic entity and explores its geographical distribution. With a focus on both historical and contemporary factors, the article sheds light on the countries where Bulgarian holds official status and where it is widely spoken. By delving into the cultural, political, and linguistic aspects, this article serves as a valuable resource for anyone interested in understanding the global presence and importance of Bulgarian as a primary language.

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