What is Mongolia best known for producing?

What is Mongolia best known for producing?

Mongolia is renowned for its rich cultural heritage and vast landscapes, but it is also known for its exceptional production in several key industries. From the ancient art of horse breeding to the world-famous cashmere wool, Mongolia has made significant contributions to the global market. This article explores the diverse range of products that Mongolia is best known for producing and highlights the country’s unique strengths in these industries. Whether it’s the traditional craftsmanship of Mongolian carpets or the high-quality dairy products, Mongolia has a lot to offer in terms of its distinctive and valuable productions.

Mongolia’s Natural Resources


Mongolia is renowned for its vast mineral resources, which have played a crucial role in the country’s economy. The landlocked nation is blessed with abundant deposits of various minerals, making it a significant producer in the global market. One of the most notable minerals found in Mongolia is coal. The country boasts substantial coal reserves, making it one of the largest coal producers in the world. The mining industry in Mongolia also extracts significant quantities of copper, gold, uranium, and iron ore. These minerals contribute significantly to Mongolia’s export revenue and attract foreign investments, driving economic growth.


Mongolia has a long-standing tradition of nomadic herding, and livestock rearing is deeply ingrained in the country’s culture and history. The vast grasslands and wide-open spaces provide ideal conditions for raising livestock, making Mongolia one of the largest producers of meat and dairy products in the region. The country’s livestock industry primarily focuses on cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. Mongolian livestock is known for its high quality and organic nature, as the animals graze freely on natural pastures. The nomadic herders’ sustainable practices ensure the well-being of the animals and the preservation of Mongolia’s unique ecosystem.


Mongolia is widely recognized as a leading producer of cashmere, a luxurious and highly sought-after natural fiber. The country’s harsh climate, with bitterly cold winters, creates an environment suitable for rearing cashmere goats. These goats have a thick, soft undercoat that provides insulation against the extreme cold. Mongolian herders carefully comb the goats’ fleece during the spring molting season to collect the precious cashmere fibers. The collected fibers undergo meticulous processing to create the finest cashmere products, known for their exceptional warmth, softness, and durability. Mongolia’s cashmere industry has gained international acclaim, with its products being highly valued worldwide.

In conclusion, Mongolia is best known for producing an array of natural resources that contribute significantly to its economy. The country’s mineral wealth, including coal, copper, gold, uranium, and iron ore, plays a vital role in both domestic consumption and export earnings. Additionally, the traditional practice of nomadic herding has made Mongolia a major producer of high-quality livestock products, such as meat and dairy. Lastly, Mongolia’s harsh climate provides the perfect conditions for rearing cashmere goats, allowing the country to excel in the production of luxurious cashmere fiber.

Mongolian Cuisine

Dairy Products

Mongolia is renowned for its dairy products, which play a significant role in Mongolian cuisine. One of the most popular dairy products is "aaruul," which is dried curd made from cow’s, yak’s, or camel’s milk. Aaruul is a staple food for Mongolians and is often consumed as a snack or used in various dishes. Another notable dairy product is "byaslag," a traditional Mongolian cheese made from curdled milk. Byaslag has a distinct taste and texture and is commonly used in soups, stews, and dumplings.

Meat Dishes

Mongolia is known for its rich and flavorful meat dishes. One iconic Mongolian dish is "khorkhog," which involves cooking mutton or goat meat with hot stones in a metal container. This unique cooking method infuses the meat with a smoky flavor and makes it incredibly tender. Another popular dish is "bansh," which are steamed dumplings filled with minced meat, usually beef or lamb, and various seasonings. Mongolian meat dishes often incorporate locally sourced ingredients and reflect the nomadic lifestyle of the Mongolian people.

Airag (Fermented Horse Milk)

Airag, also known as "kumis," is a traditional Mongolian beverage made from fermented horse milk. It holds great cultural significance and is considered the national drink of Mongolia. Airag has a slightly sour and effervescent taste due to the fermentation process. It is often consumed during festive occasions and is believed to have various health benefits. Mongolians have been producing and drinking airag for centuries, and it remains an integral part of Mongolian culture and culinary heritage.

In conclusion, Mongolian cuisine is renowned for its dairy products, including aaruul and byaslag, as well as its flavorful meat dishes like khorkhog and bansh. Additionally, airag, the fermented horse milk beverage, holds a special place in Mongolian culture and is an essential component of their culinary traditions.

Traditional Crafts

Mongolian Carpets

Mongolia is renowned for its exquisite carpets, which are considered to be one of the country’s most treasured traditional crafts. These carpets, also known as Mongolian rugs, are meticulously hand-woven by skilled artisans using ancient techniques that have been passed down through generations. The vibrant colors, intricate patterns, and superior quality of Mongolian carpets make them highly sought after both locally and internationally.

The production of Mongolian carpets involves a labor-intensive process that begins with shearing the wool from sheep, which is then carefully cleaned and spun into yarn. The yarn is dyed using natural pigments derived from plants, minerals, and insects, resulting in a rich palette of colors. Skilled weavers then use traditional looms to create the carpets, meticulously knotting each thread to form intricate patterns and designs.

Mongolian carpets not only serve as decorative pieces but also hold cultural significance. They often feature motifs inspired by nature, such as flowers, animals, and mythical creatures, representing the close relationship between the nomadic Mongolian people and their natural surroundings. These carpets are not only beautiful but also durable, owing to the high-quality wool used in their production.

Felt Products

Felt-making is another traditional craft for which Mongolia is well-known. Felt is a textile material made by compressing and matting fibers together without weaving or knitting. Mongolian nomads have been creating felt products for centuries, using wool from their livestock, primarily sheep and goats.

Mongolian felt products are highly versatile and range from clothing items such as hats, boots, and slippers to household items like rugs, wall hangings, and even yurts (traditional Mongolian tents). The process of making felt involves agitating wool fibers with moisture and heat, causing them to interlock and form a solid fabric. Skilled artisans use various techniques, including wet felting and needle felting, to create intricate designs and shapes.

The production of felt products is deeply ingrained in Mongolian culture, with each item often reflecting the nomadic lifestyle and local traditions. Felt products provide insulation from the harsh Mongolian climate, offering warmth and comfort. Additionally, the natural properties of wool make felt products breathable, water-resistant, and long-lasting.

Wood Carvings

Wood carving is a traditional craft that showcases the artistic skills of Mongolian craftsmen. It has been an integral part of Mongolian culture for centuries, with intricate carvings adorning temples, monasteries, and traditional dwellings. Wood carvings in Mongolia primarily revolve around Buddhist themes, reflecting the strong influence of Buddhism in the country.

Mongolian wood carvings are often created from various types of wood, including cedar, pine, and elm. Skilled artisans employ a wide range of carving techniques, such as relief carving, incised carving, and openwork carving, to bring intricate designs to life. These carvings depict religious figures, mythical creatures, and symbolic motifs, each holding deep spiritual significance.

Wood carvings in Mongolia not only serve as decorative pieces but are also regarded as sacred objects that carry spiritual blessings. They are commonly found in Buddhist temples, where they contribute to the serene and sacred atmosphere. Moreover, wood carvings are often incorporated into furniture, doors, and other architectural elements, adding a touch of elegance and cultural heritage.

In conclusion, Mongolia is best known for producing a variety of traditional crafts that reflect the rich cultural heritage of the country. Mongolian carpets, felt products, and wood carvings are not only visually appealing but also encompass the skills, traditions, and values of the Mongolian people. These crafts serve as a testament to the creativity, craftsmanship, and cultural pride of the artisans who continue to preserve and pass down these traditions from generation to generation.

Mongolia, a landlocked country situated in Central Asia, is renowned for its rich cultural heritage and unique traditions. When it comes to production, Mongolia has gained recognition for its significant contributions to various industries. One of the most notable products the country is known for producing is cashmere. The harsh climate and nomadic herding practices have made Mongolia a prime location for raising goats that produce high-quality cashmere wool. Additionally, Mongolia is also known for its production of minerals such as coal, copper, and gold. These natural resources have played a crucial role in the country’s economic growth. With its diverse range of products, Mongolia proves to be a nation that excels in producing goods that are not only valuable domestically but also sought after internationally.

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