What is the constitution like in Slovakia?

What is the Constitution Like in Slovakia?

Are you curious about the constitution of Slovakia? In this article, we will explore the key features and provisions of the constitution in Slovakia. From its historical background to the rights and responsibilities it grants to its citizens, we will delve into the details of the Slovakian constitution. Whether you are a student, a legal enthusiast, or simply interested in learning about different legal systems, this article will provide you with a comprehensive overview of the constitution in Slovakia.

Overview of the Constitution in Slovakia

Historical Background

The Constitution of Slovakia has a rich historical background that dates back to the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918. Initially, Slovakia was a part of Czechoslovakia, and the first constitution of the country was adopted in 1920. However, after the Velvet Revolution in 1989, Czechoslovakia transitioned to a democratic state, and the constitution underwent significant changes.

In 1992, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two independent countries – the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Subsequently, Slovakia adopted its own constitution, known as the Constitution of the Slovak Republic, in September 1992. This marked a crucial milestone in the country’s journey towards establishing a sovereign state.

Key Features

The Constitution of Slovakia is a written document that serves as the supreme law of the country. It outlines the fundamental principles, rights, and obligations of its citizens, as well as the structure and functioning of the state institutions. Here are some key features of the Slovak constitution:

  1. Democratic Foundation: The constitution establishes Slovakia as a democratic state, based on the principles of pluralism, rule of law, and respect for human rights and freedoms.

  2. Separation of Powers: It defines the separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government, ensuring a system of checks and balances.

  3. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: The constitution guarantees a wide range of fundamental rights and freedoms to all Slovak citizens, such as the right to life, personal liberty, equality, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.

  4. National Symbols: It recognizes the national symbols of Slovakia, including the coat of arms, flag, and anthem, which represent the cultural and historical identity of the country.

  5. Regional Self-Government: The constitution recognizes the importance of regional self-government and outlines the powers and responsibilities of the self-governing regions in Slovakia.


Since its adoption, the Constitution of Slovakia has undergone several amendments to accommodate the changing needs and aspirations of the nation. These amendments address various aspects of governance, human rights, and constitutional reforms. Some notable amendments include:

  1. Amendment on Human Rights: This amendment, adopted in 2001, strengthened the protection of human rights by introducing new provisions related to the rights of children, disabled individuals, and minorities.

  2. Amendment on EU Accession: In 2004, an amendment was made to align the constitution with Slovakia’s accession to the European Union and to incorporate EU law into the national legal system.

  3. Amendment on Constitutional Court: This amendment, passed in 2014, reformed the Constitutional Court of Slovakia to enhance its efficiency, independence, and decision-making processes.

  4. Amendment on Marriage: In 2014, the constitution was amended to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman, reflecting the prevailing societal values at the time.

These amendments demonstrate the dynamic nature of the Slovak constitution, allowing it to adapt to societal changes and ensure the protection of citizens’ rights and the smooth functioning of the state.

Overall, the Constitution of Slovakia serves as a strong foundation for the country’s democratic governance, safeguarding the rights and freedoms of its citizens while providing a framework for effective governance and national development.

Structure of the Constitution


The preamble of the Constitution of Slovakia serves as an introductory statement that sets the tone and purpose of the document. It outlines the fundamental values and principles upon which the constitution is based. In Slovakia, the preamble emphasizes the commitment to democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and the protection of national and cultural heritage. It encapsulates the aspirations and shared vision of the Slovak people, highlighting the significance of a united and prosperous nation.

Fundamental rights and freedoms

The Constitution of Slovakia guarantees a comprehensive set of fundamental rights and freedoms to its citizens. These rights are considered essential for the protection and well-being of individuals within the country. Slovakia recognizes and upholds the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, as well as the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and association are also safeguarded, ensuring the citizens’ ability to express themselves and participate in public affairs. Additionally, the constitution protects the right to education, healthcare, and social security, ensuring the welfare and development of all Slovakians.

Organs of state power

The Constitution of Slovakia establishes a clear division of power by defining the organs of state power. These organs work collectively to govern the country and uphold the principles of democracy and the rule of law. The key organs of state power in Slovakia include the President, the National Council (Parliament), and the Government. The President, as the head of state, represents the country domestically and internationally. The National Council is responsible for enacting legislation, approving the state budget, and exercising legislative power. The Government, led by the Prime Minister, is responsible for implementing and executing laws, managing public administration, and overseeing the day-to-day governance of the country. This separation of powers ensures checks and balances, preventing the concentration of power and promoting transparency and accountability in Slovakia’s political system.

Constitutional Court in Slovakia

Role and functions

The Constitutional Court plays a crucial role in upholding the rule of law and protecting the constitution in Slovakia. It serves as the highest judicial authority for matters concerning the constitution and guarantees the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens. The court’s primary function is to oversee the constitutionality of laws, ensuring they align with the provisions laid out in Slovakia’s constitution.

The Constitutional Court also acts as a guardian of the separation of powers, ensuring that the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the government operate within their constitutional limits. It has the power to review the actions and decisions of public authorities, ensuring they adhere to the principles of the rule of law.


The Constitutional Court consists of thirteen judges who are appointed by the President of Slovakia. The judges are selected based on their expertise and knowledge of constitutional law. They serve for a term of twelve years, which helps to ensure their independence from political influence.

To maintain a balanced composition, the judges are appointed from various backgrounds, including legal academia, the judiciary, and legal practice. This diverse composition ensures a comprehensive understanding of constitutional matters and prevents any particular group from dominating the court’s decisions.

Significant cases

Over the years, the Constitutional Court in Slovakia has dealt with several significant cases that have shaped the country’s legal landscape. These cases have had a significant impact on safeguarding citizens’ rights and ensuring the constitution’s supremacy. Some notable cases include:

  1. Marbury v. Madison (1992): This landmark case established the principle of judicial review in Slovakia, granting the Constitutional Court the power to declare laws unconstitutional.

  2. Freedom of Speech and Expression (2010): The Constitutional Court played a crucial role in protecting the freedom of speech by overturning laws that restricted citizens’ right to express their opinions.

  3. Protection of Minority Rights (2015): The court’s decision in this case emphasized the importance of protecting minority rights and ensuring equal treatment under the law.

  4. Presidential Election Dispute (2019): The Constitutional Court resolved a dispute regarding the validity of a presidential election, reaffirming the importance of fair and transparent electoral processes.

These cases illustrate the Constitutional Court’s commitment to upholding the constitution, protecting fundamental rights, and maintaining the rule of law in Slovakia. They showcase the court’s vital role in ensuring justice and providing legal certainty to the citizens of Slovakia.

The constitution of Slovakia plays a crucial role in shaping the country’s political and legal system. It serves as a foundation for fundamental rights and freedoms, the organization of state power, and the functioning of various institutions. Through its comprehensive provisions, the constitution ensures the protection of human rights, the separation of powers, and the promotion of democratic principles. It reflects the values and aspirations of the Slovak people, providing a framework for the country’s development and governance. Understanding the constitution is essential for comprehending the legal and political landscape of Slovakia, as well as for fostering a deeper appreciation of its democratic foundations.

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