What is the official language of Eswatini?

What is the official language of Eswatini?

Eswatini, a landlocked country in Southern Africa, is known for its rich cultural heritage and diverse linguistic landscape. In this article, we will explore the official language of Eswatini and its significance in the country’s identity. Discover the language that binds the people of Eswatini together and plays a crucial role in communication, education, and government affairs. Join us as we delve into the fascinating world of Eswatini’s official language and uncover its historical and cultural roots.

Overview of Eswatini

Geographical location

Eswatini, formerly known as Swaziland, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to the east and South Africa to the west and south. The country covers an area of approximately 17,364 square kilometers, making it one of the smallest countries in Africa.


Eswatini has a population of around 1.1 million people, according to the latest estimates. The country has a diverse population with various ethnic groups, including the Swazi people who are the majority. Other ethnic groups present in Eswatini include Zulu, Tsonga, and others. The population density is relatively low, with most of the population residing in the urban areas.

Political structure

Eswatini is an absolute monarchy, which means that the king has ultimate authority and power in governing the country. The current king, King Mswati III, has been in power since 1986. The king appoints the prime minister and members of the cabinet. While there is a parliament and judiciary system in place, the king’s decisions hold significant influence in the political structure of the country.

Despite being an absolute monarchy, Eswatini has a dual legal system that incorporates both traditional Swazi law and common law. This blend of legal systems reflects the cultural and historical influences within the country.

In conclusion, Eswatini is a small landlocked country in Southern Africa with a diverse population and a unique political structure. Its geographical location, population, and political system contribute to the distinctiveness of this nation.

History of Eswatini

Pre-colonial era

The history of Eswatini, formerly known as Swaziland, dates back to the pre-colonial era. The landlocked country located in Southern Africa has a rich history that predates European colonization. Eswatini was inhabited by various ethnic groups, with the Bantu-speaking Swazi people being the dominant group. The Swazi people established their kingdom in the mid-18th century under the leadership of King Ngwane III. They practiced a system of governance that revolved around a monarchy.

Colonial era

The colonial era in Eswatini began in the late 19th century when European powers started asserting their influence over Africa. In 1894, Eswatini became a British protectorate, following the signing of several treaties between the Swazi king and the British Empire. During this period, the British administration introduced various changes to the local governance and societal structures. These changes included the establishment of a centralized administration, the introduction of Western education, and the influence of Christianity.


Eswatini gained its independence from British colonial rule on September 6, 1968, and became a sovereign nation. After independence, the country retained its monarchy, with King Sobhuza II becoming the first king of independent Eswatini. The nation faced challenges in its early years of independence, including the need to establish a political system and develop its economy. Despite these challenges, Eswatini has managed to maintain its independence and preserve its cultural heritage.

Overall, the history of Eswatini reflects a journey from pre-colonial times, through the colonial era, to eventual independence. The country’s rich heritage and strong sense of identity have played a significant role in shaping its history and culture.

Languages spoken in Eswatini

Eswatini, a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, is known for its diverse linguistic landscape. The nation is home to several languages, each contributing to the cultural richness and heritage of the country.

Official language

The official language of Eswatini is siSwati, also known as Swazi. SiSwati holds a significant place in the country’s identity and is used in various official capacities, including government proceedings, education, and media. It is a Bantu language, belonging to the Niger-Congo language family, and is spoken by a substantial portion of the population.

Majority languages

Apart from siSwati, there are other languages spoken by the majority of the population in Eswatini. English, a global language widely recognized for its importance in international communication, holds a prominent position in the country. It is used as a medium of instruction in schools, and many business and governmental affairs are conducted in English.

Minority languages

In addition to siSwati and English, Eswatini is home to several minority languages. Zulu, a language that is closely related to siSwati, is spoken by a small percentage of the population, primarily by the Zulu ethnic group residing in the country. Tsonga, a Bantu language, is also spoken by a minority of people in specific regions of Eswatini.

Moreover, various other languages, including Afrikaans, Portuguese, and Indian languages such as Gujarati and Tamil, are spoken by immigrant communities residing in Eswatini. These languages contribute to the multicultural fabric of the country and reflect the diverse origins of its inhabitants.

In conclusion, Eswatini boasts a linguistic landscape enriched with multiple languages. SiSwati holds the position of the official language, while English serves as a widely used language for official and educational purposes. Additionally, minority languages like Zulu and Tsonga, along with various immigrant languages, further contribute to the linguistic diversity and cultural tapestry of Eswatini.

The official language of Eswatini is siSwati, which is spoken by the majority of the population. However, English is also widely used for government and business purposes. The recognition of siSwati as the official language highlights the country’s commitment to its cultural heritage and linguistic diversity. By embracing siSwati as the official language, Eswatini aims to preserve and promote its unique cultural identity. This decision not only strengthens national unity but also fosters inclusivity and encourages linguistic pride among its citizens.

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