What is the official language of Greece?

The official language of Greece holds significant importance in understanding the cultural and linguistic landscape of this captivating Mediterranean country. In this article, we will delve into the question, "What is the official language of Greece?" and explore the historical, societal, and political aspects associated with it. By gaining insights into Greece’s linguistic identity, we can appreciate the rich heritage and diversity that shapes this nation. Read on to discover fascinating facts about the official language of Greece and its role in shaping Greek society.

History of Greek language

Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek is the earliest form of the Greek language and has a rich history dating back to around the 9th century BC. It was primarily spoken in the classical city-states of Greece, such as Athens and Sparta, and became the language of literature, philosophy, and science during the ancient Greek civilization. Ancient Greek is known for its distinct dialects, including Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic, which varied across different regions of Greece.

Koine Greek

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, a new form of Greek language emerged known as Koine Greek. This language was heavily influenced by the fusion of different dialects and the incorporation of foreign vocabulary due to the Hellenistic expansion. Koine Greek became the lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean and was widely spoken during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. It served as the language of the New Testament and played a significant role in the spread of Christianity.

Modern Greek

Modern Greek, also known as Neo-Hellenic, is the contemporary form of the Greek language. It evolved from the Byzantine Greek spoken during the Byzantine Empire and has undergone various linguistic changes over the centuries. Modern Greek is the official language of Greece and Cyprus, and it is estimated that around 13 million people worldwide speak it as their first language. Today, Modern Greek uses the Greek alphabet and has its own distinct grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation compared to its ancient counterparts.

The Greek language has a fascinating history that spans thousands of years, from Ancient Greek to Koine Greek and finally to Modern Greek. Despite the linguistic evolution, Greek remains an integral part of Greece’s cultural heritage and continues to be spoken and celebrated by millions of people around the globe.

Greek language dialects


Attic is an ancient Greek dialect that was primarily spoken in the region of Attica, which includes Athens, the capital city of Greece. It was the predominant dialect during the Classical period of ancient Greece and the language used in various philosophical, literary, and historical works. Attic Greek is highly regarded for its clarity and elegance, making it a significant influence on the development of the Greek language.


Ionian, also known as Ionic, is another ancient Greek dialect that was spoken primarily in the region of Ionia on the western coast of Asia Minor. It was widely used in various cities such as Miletus and Ephesus. Ionian dialect is notable for its softer pronunciation and distinct features, including the use of the letter eta (η) instead of the Attic long alpha (α) in certain words. Many significant works of literature and philosophy, including the Homeric Hymns, were written in Ionian dialect.


Doric is a Greek dialect that was mainly spoken in the region of Doris, located in central Greece. It was also used extensively in various areas of the Peloponnese, including Corinth and Sparta. Doric dialect is known for its unique pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. It is considered to be the most conservative of the ancient Greek dialects and was often associated with a more archaic and rustic style of speech. Some famous works written in Doric include the poems of Alcman and Theocritus.

These three dialects, Attic, Ionian, and Doric, played crucial roles in shaping the Greek language and its literature. While Attic became the standard dialect for much of Greece, Ionian and Doric contributed significantly to the diversity and richness of Greek linguistic and cultural heritage.

Influence of Greek language on other languages


Latin has been heavily influenced by the Greek language. When the Roman Empire expanded, the Romans came into contact with Greek culture and adopted many aspects of it. This included the Greek language, which had a significant impact on the formation of Latin vocabulary and grammar.

Many words in Latin were borrowed directly from Greek, especially in areas such as philosophy, science, and religion. Greek loanwords became an integral part of the Latin language, enriching its vocabulary and allowing for more precise expression of ideas.

Furthermore, Greek also influenced the grammatical structure of Latin. The Romans adopted the Greek system of declensions, which is the way nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are inflected to indicate their grammatical function. This adoption helped shape the Latin language and made it more flexible and expressive.


English, as a Germanic language, might not seem closely related to Greek at first glance. However, Greek has still left a lasting impact on the English language.

One major influence is the vast number of Greek loanwords that have been incorporated into English. The fields of science, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, in particular, are rich with Greek origin terms. Words like "biology," "geography," "psychology," and "philosophy" are just a few examples of how Greek has contributed to the English lexicon.

Additionally, Greek has also influenced English in terms of syntax and grammar. Many English words have Greek roots, and understanding these roots can help in deciphering the meaning of complex English words. Furthermore, the study of Greek grammar has provided a framework for understanding English grammar rules.


Although Russian belongs to the Slavic language family, it has also been influenced by Greek. This influence primarily occurred during the Byzantine Empire’s reign, when Greek culture and language had a significant impact on the Slavic-speaking regions.

Greek loanwords entered the Russian language mainly in the areas of religion, literature, and art. Russian Orthodox Christianity, which has deep roots in Byzantine culture, adopted many religious terms and concepts from the Greek language. These terms became an integral part of the Russian religious vocabulary.

Furthermore, Greek influence extended to other fields such as medicine, philosophy, and science. Russian scholars and intellectuals often relied on Greek sources, leading to the adoption of Greek terms and concepts in their writings.

In conclusion, the Greek language has had a profound influence on various other languages. Latin, English, and Russian have all been enriched by Greek loanwords, grammar, and cultural concepts. This demonstrates the enduring impact of Greek on global linguistic and cultural heritage.

The official language of Greece is Greek. It is widely spoken and used in various aspects of Greek society, including education, government, and media. Greek is an ancient language with a rich history, and it plays a significant role in preserving Greek culture and heritage. Being able to communicate in Greek is essential for anyone living or visiting Greece, as it enhances the overall experience and facilitates integration into the local community. Understanding the official language of a country helps promote cultural understanding and fosters better communication between people from different backgrounds. Therefore, having knowledge of Greek can be beneficial for individuals interested in Greek history, tourism, or business opportunities in Greece.

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