Discovering the Birth of South Sudan: When did it Become a Country?

Discovering the Birth of South Sudan: When did it Become a Country?

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on the birth of South Sudan and the pivotal moment in its history when it became an independent nation. As one of the youngest countries in the world, South Sudan’s journey towards independence was marked by years of struggle, political negotiations, and a fight for self-determination. In this article, we will delve into the historical context, key events, and the ultimate declaration of South Sudan as a sovereign state. Join us as we unravel the fascinating story behind the birth of South Sudan and shed light on the question, "When did it become a country?"

Historical Background of Sudan

Pre-independence Era

The history of Sudan dates back to ancient times, with the region being inhabited by various indigenous tribes and kingdoms. The Kingdom of Kush, located in present-day Sudan, flourished from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD, establishing trade routes and maintaining strong cultural ties with ancient Egypt.

In the 19th century, Sudan fell under the influence of Egypt’s ruling dynasty, the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Egypt sought to expand its territories southwards, leading to increased Egyptian control over Sudan. During this period, Sudan experienced significant political and economic changes, as well as the introduction of modern infrastructure and technologies.

However, the pre-independence era also witnessed the exploitation of Sudan’s resources by foreign powers, causing discontent among the Sudanese people. The British Empire, which had established control over Egypt, took advantage of Sudan’s strategic location and natural resources. The British established a joint Anglo-Egyptian administration known as the Condominium, which lasted from 1899 to 1956.

The Sudanese Civil Wars

The Sudanese Civil Wars were a series of conflicts that plagued Sudan for several decades, significantly shaping the country’s path towards independence and ultimately leading to the birth of South Sudan. The first civil war erupted in 1955, just before Sudan gained independence from British-Egyptian rule.

The conflict primarily arose due to ethnic, religious, and economic divisions within Sudanese society. The central government in Khartoum, dominated by Arab-Muslim elites, faced opposition from marginalized regions, particularly South Sudan, which comprised various African ethnic groups with diverse cultural and religious backgrounds.

The civil wars were marked by widespread violence, displacement, and human rights abuses. The second civil war, which started in 1983 and lasted until 2005, saw the emergence of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M), a rebel group fighting for the rights of the predominantly Christian and animist southern Sudanese population.

Efforts to resolve the conflict were made through numerous peace agreements, including the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in 2005. This agreement granted South Sudan a referendum on independence, which took place in 2011. The majority of South Sudanese voted in favor of secession, leading to the establishment of the Republic of South Sudan as an independent nation on July 9, 2011.

The birth of South Sudan marked a significant turning point in Sudan’s history, as it became the newest country in the world. However, the challenges of nation-building, internal conflicts, and economic development continue to shape both Sudan and South Sudan’s paths towards stability and prosperity.

Creation of South Sudan

South Sudan, the youngest country in the world, came into existence on July 9, 2011. This historic moment marked the culmination of a long and arduous journey towards independence. The creation of South Sudan can be attributed to two pivotal events – the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Referendum on Independence.

Comprehensive Peace Agreement

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed on January 9, 2005, between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and the Government of Sudan. This agreement aimed to end the devastating Sudanese Civil War, which had lasted for over two decades. The CPA not only provided a framework for a power-sharing government but also granted the people of South Sudan the right to self-determination through a referendum.

Referendum on Independence

The long-awaited referendum on the independence of South Sudan took place from January 9 to 15, 2011. The referendum allowed the people of South Sudan to decide whether they wanted to remain part of Sudan or establish their own independent country. Over 98% of the population participated in the referendum, and an overwhelming majority voted in favor of secession. This result paved the way for the birth of South Sudan as a sovereign nation.

The referendum process was a significant achievement in itself, as it was conducted in a peaceful and transparent manner, adhering to international standards. The international community played a crucial role in ensuring a smooth and fair process, providing technical assistance and monitoring the referendum closely.

Following the referendum, a transitional period was initiated to facilitate the establishment of South Sudan as an independent state. This involved drafting a constitution, forming a government, and addressing various socio-political challenges. Finally, on July 9, 2011, amidst jubilation and optimism, South Sudan officially declared its independence, becoming the 193rd member state of the United Nations.

The creation of South Sudan marked a new chapter in the history of the African continent. It represented the aspirations of a long-oppressed people to govern themselves and build a nation based on principles of freedom, justice, and equality. However, the road to stability and prosperity for South Sudan has been fraught with numerous challenges, including internal conflicts, economic struggles, and governance issues. Nonetheless, the birth of South Sudan remains a remarkable achievement in the pursuit of self-determination and serves as an inspiration for other nations seeking independence and sovereignty.

The Birth of South Sudan

Independence Day

On July 9, 2011, South Sudan officially gained independence and became the newest country in the world. This momentous occasion marked the end of a long and tumultuous journey for the people of South Sudan, who had fought for decades to achieve self-determination and freedom from Sudan.

The independence day of South Sudan is a significant event that is celebrated with great enthusiasm and pride by the South Sudanese people. It symbolizes their hard-fought struggle for independence and the beginning of a new chapter in their history. The day is marked with various festivities, including parades, cultural performances, and fireworks, showcasing the rich and diverse heritage of the nation.

Recognition by the International Community

Following its declaration of independence, South Sudan sought recognition from the international community. This process involved gaining acceptance and support from other nations and international organizations. Recognition by the international community was crucial for South Sudan’s legitimacy as a sovereign state and its ability to engage in diplomatic relations and access international aid and support.

The journey to gain international recognition was not without challenges. However, over time, South Sudan managed to secure recognition from a significant number of countries and international bodies. The United Nations General Assembly, for instance, admitted South Sudan as a member state in July 2011, shortly after its independence declaration.

Recognition by the international community opened doors for South Sudan to establish diplomatic relations and engage in global affairs. It allowed the country to participate in international organizations, such as the African Union and the United Nations, and benefit from their programs and initiatives. Furthermore, recognition also provided opportunities for South Sudan to strengthen its bilateral relations with other nations, paving the way for economic cooperation, trade, and investments.

In conclusion, the birth of South Sudan as a country took place on July 9, 2011, with its declaration of independence. This historic moment marked the culmination of a long struggle for self-determination by the South Sudanese people. Subsequently, South Sudan successfully gained recognition from the international community, enabling it to establish diplomatic relations, participate in global affairs, and access international support.

The birth of South Sudan as an independent country was a significant milestone in history. It marked the end of decades of conflict and the beginning of a new era for the people of South Sudan. Through a comprehensive analysis of historical events and political developments, this article has provided a detailed account of when and how South Sudan became a country. From the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 to the official declaration of independence in 2011, this journey has been filled with challenges and triumphs. As South Sudan continues to navigate its path towards stability and development, it is crucial to understand and appreciate the historical context that led to its birth. By learning from the past, we can strive for a better future for the people of South Sudan.

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