10 Essential Facts About Czech Republic

10 Essential Facts About Czech Republic

Are you planning a trip to the Czech Republic? Or maybe you’re just curious about this fascinating country? In this article, we will explore 10 essential facts about the Czech Republic that will give you a deeper understanding of its rich history, vibrant culture, and breathtaking landscapes. From its picturesque capital city of Prague to its world-famous beer and stunning castles, the Czech Republic has something to offer for every traveler. So, let’s dive in and discover what makes this Central European gem so special!

Geography and Location

Landlocked Central European Country

The Czech Republic is a landlocked country located in the heart of Europe. It is situated in the central part of the continent and does not have any access to the sea. Despite being landlocked, the country boasts beautiful landscapes and diverse geographical features.

Borders and Neighboring Countries

The Czech Republic shares its borders with four neighboring countries. To the west, it is bordered by Germany, while Poland lies to the northeast. Austria is located to the south, and Slovakia to the southeast. These countries form a natural barrier around the Czech Republic, further enhancing its unique geographical position.

The border between the Czech Republic and Germany stretches for about 810 kilometers, making it the longest border of the Czech Republic. The border with Poland is approximately 762 kilometers long, while the border with Austria measures around 362 kilometers. The shortest border, about 252 kilometers, is shared with Slovakia.

The strategic location of the Czech Republic has played a significant role throughout history, as it has served as a crossroads for trade and cultural exchange between Western and Eastern Europe. This positioning has influenced the country’s development and contributed to its rich cultural heritage.

History and Culture

Historical Background

The Czech Republic is a country in Central Europe with a rich and fascinating history. It was originally inhabited by Celtic tribes before being conquered by the Roman Empire. In the 9th century, the Great Moravian Empire emerged, playing a significant role in the region’s history.

During the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Bohemia became a prominent power under the rule of the Přemyslid dynasty. It later came under the control of the Habsburg monarchy, which lasted for several centuries until the end of World War I.

The Czech Republic was then part of Czechoslovakia until 1993 when it peacefully split into two independent countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Cultural Heritage

The Czech Republic boasts a rich cultural heritage that has been shaped by its tumultuous history. The country is famous for its stunning architecture, particularly in the capital city of Prague. With its medieval castles, Gothic cathedrals, and charming cobblestone streets, Prague is a treasure trove of architectural wonders.

The Czech Republic is also renowned for its contributions to the world of art and music. The works of famous Czech composers such as Antonín Dvořák and Bedřich Smetana have left an indelible mark on classical music.

Additionally, the Czech Republic is known for its traditional crafts and folk traditions. Visitors can witness the art of glassblowing, puppetry, and intricate embroidery, which have been passed down through generations.

Famous Personalities

The Czech Republic has produced numerous famous personalities who have made significant contributions in various fields. One of the most notable figures is Franz Kafka, a renowned writer whose works continue to captivate readers around the world with their unique blend of mystery and existential themes.

Another famous Czech personality is Alfons Mucha, a prominent Art Nouveau painter known for his iconic poster designs and decorative art. Mucha’s distinct style has become synonymous with the Art Nouveau movement.

In the world of sports, the Czech Republic has produced exceptional athletes such as Martina Navratilova, one of the greatest tennis players of all time. Navratilova’s achievements on the court have cemented her legacy as a sports icon.

These are just a few examples of the many famous personalities who have emerged from the Czech Republic, leaving an indelible mark on the world stage.

Government and Politics

Democratic Republic

The Czech Republic is a democratic republic with a multi-party system. It operates under a parliamentary system, where the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The country follows the principles of representative democracy, where citizens elect their representatives to the Parliament through regular elections.

Political System

The political system of the Czech Republic is based on a balance of power between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The Parliament, known as the Czech Parliament, is a bicameral institution consisting of two chambers: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies holds the primary legislative power, while the Senate provides a check and balance system.

The President, who is elected by the citizens through direct elections, represents the country internationally and has limited executive powers. The Prime Minister, on the other hand, is appointed by the President and leads the government, responsible for implementing policies and managing day-to-day affairs.

Current Ruling Party

As of [current year], the current ruling party in the Czech Republic is [name of the party]. They hold the majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and play a crucial role in shaping the country’s political landscape. The ruling party’s policies and decisions have a significant impact on the direction and governance of the Czech Republic.

Economy and Industries

Stable and Developed Economy

The Czech Republic boasts a stable and developed economy that has experienced significant growth in recent years. With a high standard of living and a well-functioning market economy, the country has become an attractive destination for investors and businesses alike. One of the key factors contributing to the stability of the Czech economy is its membership in the European Union, which has provided access to a large market and facilitated trade and investment opportunities.

Main Industries

The Czech Republic is known for its diverse range of industries, which play a crucial role in driving its economy forward. The country has a strong manufacturing sector, with automobile manufacturing being one of its flagship industries. Renowned automobile companies such as Škoda Auto, a subsidiary of Volkswagen, have established their production facilities in the Czech Republic, contributing significantly to the country’s export revenue.

Apart from the automobile industry, the Czech Republic also excels in sectors like machinery and engineering, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. The machinery and engineering industry, in particular, has a long-standing tradition in the country and is recognized for its high-quality products and technological advancements. These industries not only create employment opportunities for the Czech population but also contribute significantly to the country’s GDP.

Tourism and Services

In addition to its strong industrial base, the Czech Republic has also witnessed a remarkable growth in its tourism and services sector. The country’s rich history, stunning architecture, and cultural heritage make it an attractive destination for tourists from all over the world. Popular tourist attractions include the historic city of Prague, the picturesque spa towns, and the enchanting castles scattered throughout the countryside.

The tourism sector has witnessed substantial investment, with the development of modern infrastructure and a wide range of accommodation options to cater to the growing number of visitors. The services sector, including hospitality, retail, and transportation, has also experienced significant growth as a result of the increasing tourism demand. The provision of high-quality services has further enhanced the overall experience for tourists and contributed to the country’s economy.

Overall, the Czech Republic’s stable and developed economy, diverse industrial base, and flourishing tourism and services sector make it an attractive destination for businesses, investors, and tourists alike. With its strong economic foundations and commitment to innovation, the country is well-positioned for continued growth and prosperity in the future.

Population and Languages

Population Demographics

The Czech Republic, located in Central Europe, has a population of approximately 10.7 million people. The country boasts a diverse population with a rich cultural heritage. The majority of the population is of Czech ethnicity, accounting for around 64% of the total population. Other significant ethnic groups include Slovaks, Moravians, and Silesians.

Official Language

The official language of the Czech Republic is Czech. As the native language of the majority of the population, Czech is spoken by approximately 98% of Czech citizens. It is a West Slavic language that is closely related to Slovak and Polish. Czech is known for its unique phonetics and complex grammar, making it an interesting language to study and understand.

Minority Languages

In addition to Czech, the Czech Republic recognizes several minority languages. Due to historical influences and migration patterns, significant populations of other language speakers reside in the country. Slovak is the most prevalent minority language, spoken by a sizable portion of the population, particularly in border regions close to Slovakia. German and Polish are also spoken by smaller communities, mainly in areas near the respective countries.

Furthermore, Romani, the language of the Roma minority, holds official status in some municipalities. Other minority languages spoken in the Czech Republic include Hungarian, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese, among others. These languages contribute to the cultural diversity and enrich the linguistic landscape of the Czech Republic.

Tourist Attractions

Prague – The Capital City

Prague, the capital city of the Czech Republic, is a must-visit destination for tourists. Known as "the City of a Hundred Spires," Prague offers a unique blend of history, culture, and stunning architecture. The city’s historic center, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is home to iconic landmarks such as Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, and the Astronomical Clock. Visitors can wander through the narrow cobblestone streets, explore the charming neighborhoods, and indulge in the vibrant nightlife. With its rich history and breathtaking views, Prague is a top tourist attraction in the Czech Republic.

Historical Castles and Chateaux

The Czech Republic boasts an impressive collection of historical castles and chateaux, attracting history enthusiasts from around the world. One of the most famous is the Prague Castle, which dates back to the 9th century and is the largest ancient castle complex in the world. Other notable castles include Karlštejn Castle, known for its stunning Gothic architecture, and Český Krumlov Castle, a UNESCO World Heritage site. These castles and chateaux offer visitors a glimpse into the country’s medieval past, with their well-preserved interiors, beautiful gardens, and captivating stories.

Spa Towns and Natural Landscapes

The Czech Republic is not only known for its historical and architectural treasures but also for its natural beauty. The country is dotted with picturesque spa towns and breathtaking natural landscapes. Karlovy Vary, one of the most famous spa towns, is renowned for its healing thermal springs and elegant colonnades. Visitors can soak in the mineral-rich waters, indulge in spa treatments, and relax in the tranquil surroundings. Additionally, the Czech Republic is home to stunning national parks such as Bohemian Switzerland, Šumava, and Krkonoše, offering opportunities for hiking, cycling, and wildlife spotting. Whether you seek relaxation or adventure, the spa towns and natural landscapes of the Czech Republic have something to offer for every traveler.

Cuisine and Traditional Dishes

The Czech Republic is not only famous for its rich history and stunning architecture but also for its delicious cuisine. Czech cuisine is hearty and comforting, with a focus on meat, potatoes, and traditional flavors. Here are some essential facts about Czech cuisine and traditional dishes:

Famous Czech Dishes

  1. Goulash: Goulash is one of the most popular dishes in the Czech Republic. This hearty stew is made with tender beef or pork, onions, and a variety of spices. It is often served with bread dumplings or potatoes.

  2. Svíčková: Svíčková is a traditional Czech dish made from marinated beef sirloin. The meat is cooked slowly in a creamy vegetable sauce and served with bread dumplings, cranberry sauce, and a slice of lemon.

  3. Trdelník: Trdelník is a sweet pastry that has become a favorite among locals and tourists alike. It is made by wrapping dough around a cylindrical spit, grilling it over an open flame, and then dusting it with sugar and cinnamon. The result is a crispy, caramelized treat that is often enjoyed with a cup of hot chocolate.

Beer Culture

Beer is an integral part of Czech culture and has a long history in the country. The Czech Republic is known for producing some of the best beers in the world, and beer consumption per capita is among the highest in the world. Here are some interesting facts about the beer culture in the Czech Republic:

  1. Pilsner Urquell: Pilsner Urquell is a world-renowned Czech beer that originated in the city of Pilsen. It is a pale lager with a distinctive hoppy flavor and a rich golden color. Pilsner Urquell is considered the original and prototypical Pilsner beer.

  2. Beer Spa: The Czech Republic is famous for its beer spas, where visitors can enjoy a relaxing bath in a tub filled with warm beer. It is believed that the hops and other ingredients in beer have many health benefits, including improving skin condition and helping with relaxation.

  3. Beer Festivals: The Czech Republic hosts numerous beer festivals throughout the year, attracting beer enthusiasts from all over the world. The most famous of these festivals is the Czech Beer Festival in Prague, where visitors can sample a wide variety of Czech beers and enjoy live music and traditional Czech food.

Traditional Desserts

No meal in the Czech Republic is complete without indulging in some traditional desserts. Czech desserts are known for their sweet flavors and rich textures. Here are a few traditional Czech desserts worth trying:

  1. Koláče: Koláče is a popular Czech pastry that comes in various shapes and sizes. It is typically made with sweet yeast dough and filled with ingredients such as fruit preserves, poppy seeds, or sweet cheese. Koláče can be enjoyed as a breakfast pastry or as a sweet treat throughout the day.

  2. Medovník: Medovník, also known as honey cake, is a layered cake made with honey-infused dough and a creamy filling. The cake is moist and fragrant, with a hint of cinnamon. It is often garnished with almonds or walnuts and is a favorite dessert for special occasions.

  3. Štrúdl: Štrúdl, or strudel, is a popular pastry in the Czech Republic. It is made by rolling out thin layers of dough and filling it with a mixture of fruit, nuts, or sweet cheese. Apple strudel is the most common variety, but you can also find cherry, poppy seed, or even savory versions of this delicious treat.

In conclusion, Czech cuisine offers a delightful array of dishes, from hearty stews to sweet pastries. Exploring the famous Czech dishes, immersing in the beer culture, and indulging in traditional desserts are essential experiences for anyone visiting the Czech Republic.

Education and Universities

Education System

The Czech Republic has a well-developed education system, offering high-quality education at all levels. The country places a strong emphasis on education, with a literacy rate of almost 99%.

In the Czech Republic, education is compulsory for children from the age of 6 to 15. The education system is divided into several stages, including pre-school education, primary education, and secondary education. Higher education is also widely available, with a range of universities and colleges offering a variety of study programs.

The primary and secondary education system in the Czech Republic focuses on providing students with a well-rounded education. It aims to develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities in various areas, including mathematics, sciences, humanities, languages, and arts. The curriculum is designed to ensure that students receive a comprehensive education and are well-prepared for further studies or entering the workforce.

Top Universities

The Czech Republic is home to several prestigious universities that are recognized both nationally and internationally for their academic excellence. These universities offer a wide range of study programs in various fields, attracting students from all over the world.

One of the top universities in the Czech Republic is Charles University, which is also one of the oldest universities in Central Europe. It offers a diverse range of study programs, including humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and more. Charles University is known for its research-oriented approach and has produced numerous renowned scientists, scholars, and professionals.

Another notable university is Masaryk University, located in the city of Brno. It is the second-largest university in the Czech Republic and offers a wide range of study programs across various disciplines. Masaryk University is known for its strong research focus and innovative teaching methods.

Other top universities in the Czech Republic include Czech Technical University in Prague, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, and Palacky University Olomouc. These universities have a strong reputation for their academic quality, research output, and international collaborations.

Foreign Students

The Czech Republic attracts a significant number of foreign students each year, thanks to its high-quality education system, affordable tuition fees, and vibrant cultural scene. The universities in the Czech Republic warmly welcome international students, offering them various support services and programs to ensure a smooth transition and successful academic journey.

Foreign students have the opportunity to study in English or Czech, depending on their preferences and the availability of study programs. Many universities offer English-taught programs specifically designed for international students, allowing them to fully participate in the academic and social life of the university.

The Czech Republic also provides various scholarship opportunities for international students. These scholarships aim to support outstanding students and promote cultural exchange. Additionally, the country’s central European location offers a unique opportunity for students to explore neighboring countries and experience different cultures.

Overall, the Czech Republic’s education system and universities provide a stimulating and inclusive environment for both local and international students. With its rich history, academic excellence, and diverse study programs, the Czech Republic is an attractive destination for those seeking quality education and a memorable cultural experience.

Transportation and Infrastructure

Public Transportation

The Czech Republic boasts an efficient and extensive public transportation system that makes traveling within the country a breeze. Whether you are exploring the bustling city of Prague or venturing into the charming countryside, public transportation offers a convenient way to get around.


The Czech Republic has a well-developed railway network, connecting major cities and towns throughout the country. The trains are known for their reliability and comfortable amenities, making them a popular choice among both locals and tourists. Whether you prefer high-speed trains or scenic routes, the Czech railway system has got you covered.


Prague, the capital city of the Czech Republic, is renowned for its efficient metro system. With three lines spanning the city, the metro provides a fast and convenient way to navigate Prague’s landmarks and neighborhoods. The metro stations are well-maintained and easily accessible, ensuring a hassle-free travel experience.

Trams and Buses

Trams and buses are an integral part of the Czech Republic’s public transportation system, especially in urban areas. Trams are a common sight in cities like Prague and Brno, offering a scenic and relaxed way to explore the city streets. Buses, on the other hand, provide a comprehensive network that covers both urban and rural areas, making them a reliable choice for reaching destinations off the beaten path.

Highway Network

The Czech Republic boasts a well-developed and extensive highway network, making it easy to explore the country by road. The highways are well-maintained and offer smooth driving conditions, ensuring a comfortable journey for both locals and tourists. Whether you plan to rent a car or embark on a road trip, the Czech highway network provides easy access to various regions of the country.

International Airports

The Czech Republic is home to several international airports, ensuring convenient connections to major cities around the world. The main international airport is Václav Havel Airport Prague, located just outside of Prague. This bustling airport serves as a major hub for both domestic and international flights, offering a wide range of airlines and destinations.

Apart from Václav Havel Airport Prague, there are also other international airports located in cities such as Brno, Ostrava, and Karlovy Vary. These airports provide additional options for travelers, allowing them to choose the most convenient entry point to the Czech Republic based on their itinerary.

In conclusion, the Czech Republic’s transportation and infrastructure are well-equipped to cater to the needs of both locals and tourists. With an efficient public transportation system, extensive highway network, and international airports, exploring the country has never been easier. Whether you prefer trains, trams, buses, or driving on the highways, there are plenty of options to suit your travel preferences.

Festivals and Celebrations

Cultural Festivals

The Czech Republic is known for its vibrant cultural festivals that showcase the rich heritage and traditions of the country. These festivals bring together locals and tourists alike to celebrate Czech customs and offer a glimpse into the country’s history.

One of the most famous cultural festivals in the Czech Republic is the Prague Spring Festival. Held annually in Prague, this classical music festival attracts renowned musicians and orchestras from around the world. It features a series of concerts, recitals, and opera performances, offering a treat for music enthusiasts.

Another notable cultural festival is the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. Considered one of the oldest film festivals in the world, it takes place in the picturesque spa town of Karlovy Vary. The festival showcases a wide range of international films, including both mainstream and independent productions. Visitors can enjoy film screenings, meet filmmakers, and experience the vibrant atmosphere of this prestigious event.

Christmas Markets

During the holiday season, the Czech Republic comes alive with enchanting Christmas markets that are a must-visit for locals and tourists alike. These markets offer a unique festive experience, combining traditional Czech craftsmanship, delicious food, and the joyous spirit of Christmas.

One of the most popular Christmas markets is held in Prague’s Old Town Square. The market features beautifully decorated wooden stalls selling handmade crafts, ornaments, and traditional Czech Christmas treats such as gingerbread cookies and mulled wine. Visitors can also enjoy live music performances, nativity scenes, and ice skating in the nearby rinks.

Music and Film Festivals

The Czech Republic hosts a variety of music and film festivals throughout the year, catering to different tastes and genres. These festivals provide a platform for both local and international artists to showcase their talent and entertain audiences.

One of the prominent music festivals is the Colours of Ostrava festival. Held in the industrial city of Ostrava, this multi-genre festival attracts music lovers from all over the world. It features a diverse lineup of artists, including renowned bands, solo performers, and DJs. With its unique atmosphere and various stages set up in a former coal mine, the Colours of Ostrava festival offers an unforgettable musical experience.

For film enthusiasts, the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival mentioned earlier is a highlight. It not only showcases international films but also provides a platform for Czech filmmakers to present their work. The festival includes screenings, industry events, and discussions, making it a hub for film enthusiasts and professionals.

In conclusion, the Czech Republic’s festivals and celebrations offer a vibrant and culturally rich experience. Whether you’re interested in music, film, or traditional Czech customs, there is a festival for everyone to enjoy in this captivating country.

The Czech Republic is a country rich in history, culture, and natural beauty. From its stunning castles and charming medieval towns to its vibrant cities and picturesque landscapes, there is something for everyone to discover and explore. Whether you are interested in learning about its fascinating past, indulging in traditional Czech cuisine, or simply immersing yourself in the warmth and hospitality of its people, the Czech Republic offers a truly unforgettable experience. With its central location in Europe, it is also a convenient and accessible destination for travelers. So, whether you are planning a short city break or a longer vacation, make sure to include the Czech Republic on your travel itinerary. You won’t be disappointed.

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