Learn 10 Amazing Facts About Mauritania

Learn 10 Amazing Facts About Mauritania

Welcome to our article where you will discover 10 fascinating and extraordinary facts about Mauritania. Situated in northwest Africa, Mauritania is a country known for its rich cultural heritage, breathtaking landscapes, and unique traditions. From the stunning Sahara Desert to the vibrant capital city of Nouakchott, we will delve into various aspects that make Mauritania a truly remarkable destination. Whether you are a travel enthusiast or simply curious about this captivating country, join us as we unveil intriguing facts that will leave you enlightened and inspired.

Geography and Location

Mauritania, a country located in Northwest Africa, is known for its vast and diverse geography. Situated between the latitudes of 14° and 27°N, and longitudes 5° and 17°W, Mauritania shares borders with several countries, including Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, Senegal to the southwest, and the Western Sahara to the north.

Size and Borders

Covering an expansive area of approximately 1,030,700 square kilometers (397,955 square miles), Mauritania is the eleventh largest country in Africa. Its borders stretch for about 5,074 kilometers (3,149 miles), encompassing a diverse range of landscapes and ecosystems.

Sahara Desert

A significant portion of Mauritania’s territory is occupied by the Sahara Desert, which extends across the northern and central parts of the country. This vast desert landscape is characterized by sweeping sand dunes, rocky plateaus, and arid plains. The Sahara Desert in Mauritania offers breathtaking views and a unique experience for adventure enthusiasts and nature lovers alike.

Coastline and Seaports

Mauritania has a coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, stretching for approximately 754 kilometers (469 miles). This coastal region is home to several seaports, including Nouadhibou and Nouakchott, the capital city. These seaports play a crucial role in the country’s economy, facilitating trade and serving as gateways for international commerce.

In conclusion, Mauritania’s geography and location make it a fascinating country with diverse landscapes, ranging from the vast Sahara Desert to the beautiful coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. Its borders with neighboring countries contribute to its cultural richness and historical significance. The seaports further enhance Mauritania’s economic development and global connectivity.

History and Culture

Colonial Period

The colonial period in Mauritania began in the late 19th century when European powers started to exert their influence over the region. France, in particular, established control over Mauritania in the early 20th century. During this time, the French implemented various policies that greatly impacted the country’s history and culture.

One significant aspect of the colonial period was the economic exploitation of Mauritania’s resources. The French focused on extracting natural resources such as iron ore, which led to the development of mining industries. This industrialization brought about significant changes in the country’s economy, leading to the growth of urban centers and the establishment of infrastructure.

Moreover, the French colonial rule also influenced the cultural landscape of Mauritania. The French introduced their language, institutions, and education system, which had a lasting impact on the country. This period saw the blending of French and Mauritanian cultures, resulting in a unique cultural identity that still persists today.

Independence and Modern Era

Mauritania gained independence from France on November 28, 1960. Following independence, the country experienced a series of political changes and challenges. Various political parties emerged, each with their own ideologies and aspirations for the nation.

During the modern era, Mauritania faced numerous internal conflicts and external pressures. Military coups and political instability characterized much of the country’s early independence. However, efforts were made to stabilize the government and establish a democratic system.

In recent years, Mauritania has made significant progress in various aspects. The country has seen improvements in infrastructure, education, and healthcare. Efforts have also been made to promote human rights and gender equality. Mauritania continues to strive for economic development and political stability, aiming to create a prosperous future for its citizens.

Nomadic Culture

The nomadic culture of Mauritania is deeply rooted in the country’s history and continues to shape its identity today. Nomadic communities, such as the Moors and the Berbers, have inhabited the region for centuries, adapting to the harsh desert environment.

Nomadic life in Mauritania revolves around traditional practices, such as herding livestock and living in tents or temporary settlements. These communities have a rich cultural heritage, including traditional music, dance, and storytelling. The nomads’ deep connection to their land and their ability to navigate the vast desert have enabled them to preserve their unique way of life.

Despite modernization and urbanization, nomadic culture remains an integral part of Mauritania. Efforts are being made to preserve and promote this cultural heritage, recognizing its importance in the country’s history and identity. Various festivals and events showcase nomadic traditions, allowing locals and tourists to experience the richness of Mauritania’s nomadic culture.

Wildlife and Natural Wonders

Mauritania is a country known for its diverse wildlife and stunning natural wonders. From rich biodiversity to well-preserved national parks, the country offers a unique experience for nature enthusiasts.

Rich Biodiversity

Mauritania boasts a remarkable richness in biodiversity, making it a paradise for wildlife lovers. The country is home to a wide range of animal species, including mammals, reptiles, birds, and marine life. In the deserts of Mauritania, you can spot desert foxes, gazelles, and the elusive sand cat. The coastal areas are teeming with birdlife, with over 2 million migratory birds visiting each year. The diverse ecosystems in Mauritania support a variety of species, making it a treasure trove for biodiversity enthusiasts.

National Parks

Mauritania takes pride in its well-maintained national parks, offering visitors an opportunity to explore the country’s natural wonders. These parks serve as protected areas for wildlife conservation and provide a sanctuary for numerous species. The national parks in Mauritania are carefully managed to preserve the delicate balance of ecosystems and promote sustainable tourism. Visitors can enjoy guided tours, hiking trails, and camping facilities while immersing themselves in the beauty of the country’s untouched landscapes.

Banc d’Arguin National Park

One of the outstanding national parks in Mauritania is the Banc d’Arguin National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Located along the Atlantic coast, this park covers an area of approximately 12,000 square kilometers, encompassing both marine and terrestrial habitats. The park is renowned for its diverse ecosystem, which includes sand dunes, coastal swamps, and islands. It serves as a vital breeding ground for migratory birds, such as flamingos, terns, and pelicans. The waters surrounding the park are home to dolphins, turtles, and various fish species. Exploring Banc d’Arguin National Park offers a unique opportunity to witness the intricate relationship between land, sea, and wildlife.

In conclusion, Mauritania’s wildlife and natural wonders are a testament to the country’s commitment to preserving its natural heritage. With its rich biodiversity, well-maintained national parks, and the magnificent Banc d’Arguin National Park, Mauritania offers a captivating experience for nature enthusiasts and a chance to appreciate the beauty of its untamed landscapes.

Economy and Resources

Natural Resources

Mauritania, located in Northwest Africa, is blessed with abundant natural resources that contribute significantly to its economy. The country boasts a diverse range of minerals, making it a valuable player in the global mining industry. Some of the key natural resources found in Mauritania include:

  • Iron Ore: Mauritania possesses one of the world’s largest deposits of iron ore, particularly in the region of Zouérat. This resource has played a pivotal role in the country’s economic development, with major mining companies operating in the area.

  • Gold: The country is also rich in gold reserves, with several gold mines scattered across the country. This precious metal has attracted both local and international mining companies, contributing to the growth of Mauritania’s mining sector.

  • Copper: Mauritania has significant copper deposits, primarily located in the Akjoujt region. The extraction and export of copper have provided employment opportunities and generated revenue for the country.

  • Phosphates: The coastal regions of Mauritania are home to extensive phosphate deposits. Phosphates are essential for the production of fertilizers, making this resource a valuable commodity for both domestic and international markets.


Agriculture plays a crucial role in Mauritania’s economy, providing employment opportunities for a significant portion of the population. Despite the country’s arid climate and limited arable land, agriculture manages to thrive, thanks to the following factors:

  • Date Palms: Mauritania is known for its vast plantations of date palms, particularly along the Senegal River Valley. Dates are a staple crop in the country and are not only consumed domestically but also exported to neighboring countries.

  • Livestock: Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary livestock reared in Mauritania. Nomadic herding communities play a vital role in the livestock industry, providing meat, milk, and other products for both local consumption and export.

  • Cereal Crops: Despite the arid conditions, Mauritania cultivates cereal crops such as millet, sorghum, and maize. These crops serve as a vital food source for the population and contribute to the country’s food security.

Fishing Industry

Mauritania benefits from its strategic location along the Atlantic coast, making it home to a thriving fishing industry. The country’s fishing sector has experienced significant growth and provides numerous economic advantages:

  • Rich Marine Resources: The Mauritanian waters are teeming with a wide variety of fish species, such as sardines, mackerel, tuna, and octopus. This abundance of marine resources supports both artisanal and industrial fishing activities.

  • Employment and Exports: The fishing industry in Mauritania plays a crucial role in providing employment opportunities for coastal communities. Additionally, the export of fish products, including fresh, frozen, and processed seafood, contributes to the country’s economic growth.

  • Foreign Partnerships: Mauritania has entered into partnerships with international fishing companies, which have invested in the development of the fishing sector. These collaborations have facilitated technological advancements and the sustainable management of marine resources.

Overall, the diverse natural resources, agricultural productivity, and thriving fishing industry contribute significantly to Mauritania’s economy, ensuring its economic stability and growth.

Cuisine and Traditional Dishes

Mauritanian Tea

Mauritanian tea, also known as "Atay" or "Berber tea," is an integral part of the Mauritanian culture and social gatherings. This traditional tea ceremony holds great importance and is considered a symbol of hospitality. The preparation and serving of Mauritanian tea is an art form in itself.

The tea is made using Chinese green tea leaves, mint leaves, and a significant amount of sugar. The tea is brewed three times in a special teapot called "the three phases" or "three cups." This process allows for the perfect balance of flavors and ensures a strong yet sweet taste. The tea is then poured into small, narrow glasses from a height to create a frothy layer on top.

Drinking Mauritanian tea is a ritual that involves pouring the tea into small glasses and passing them around to guests. The tea is sipped slowly to savor its unique flavor and to engage in conversation. This tea ceremony is a way of bringing people together and fostering a sense of community.

Camel Meat

Camel meat is a staple in Mauritanian cuisine and holds cultural significance in the country. It is considered a delicacy and is often reserved for special occasions or festive gatherings. The meat is known for its tender texture and rich flavor, making it a favorite among locals and visitors alike.

In Mauritania, camel meat is prepared in various ways. It can be grilled, roasted, or cooked in stews and tagines. One popular dish is "Méchoui," which involves slow-roasting a whole camel over an open fire. This traditional method of cooking enhances the meat’s flavor and gives it a smoky aroma.

Camel meat is not only delicious but also highly nutritious. It is a good source of protein, vitamins, and minerals, making it an important part of the Mauritanian diet. The cultural significance and culinary versatility of camel meat make it an essential component of Mauritanian cuisine.


Thieboudienne, often referred to as the national dish of Mauritania, is a flavorful and aromatic rice dish. It is a combination of rice, fish, and vegetables, cooked together with various spices and herbs. The dish is known for its vibrant colors and tantalizing taste.

To prepare Thieboudienne, fish such as grouper or red snapper is first seasoned with a blend of spices, including garlic, onion, turmeric, and chili powder. The fish is then fried until crispy and set aside. In the same pan, vegetables like carrots, eggplant, and cabbage are sautéed in oil until they become tender.

Next, rice is added to the pan along with tomato paste, water, and more spices. The dish is slow-cooked on low heat, allowing the flavors to meld together and the rice to absorb all the delicious juices. Finally, the fried fish is placed on top of the rice, and the dish is garnished with fresh herbs like parsley and cilantro.

Thieboudienne is not only a culinary delight but also a representation of the cultural diversity in Mauritania. It showcases the country’s coastal influences and the use of local ingredients. This iconic dish is a must-try for anyone visiting Mauritania to experience the true flavors of the country.

Mauritania is a country full of fascinating facts and unique characteristics that make it a truly remarkable destination. From its stunning landscapes and diverse wildlife to its rich cultural heritage and ancient history, there is so much to discover and learn about this African nation. Whether you are intrigued by its captivating traditions, curious about its nomadic way of life, or simply want to explore its beautiful desert landscapes, Mauritania offers a wealth of amazing experiences for every traveler. So, pack your bags and get ready to embark on an unforgettable journey of discovery in Mauritania.

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