What are the top 3 languages spoken in Turkmenistan?

Turkmenistan, a country located in Central Asia, is known for its rich cultural heritage and linguistic diversity. In this article, we will explore the top three languages spoken in Turkmenistan and delve into their significance in the country. Understanding the linguistic landscape of Turkmenistan is crucial for anyone interested in its history, culture, and social dynamics. Join us as we uncover the languages that shape the communication and identity of this fascinating nation.

Overview of Turkmenistan

Geographical location

Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia, bordered by five countries: Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the west. It covers an area of around 488,100 square kilometers, making it the world’s 52nd largest country.


As of the latest estimates, Turkmenistan has a population of approximately 6 million people. The country has a relatively low population density, with an average of around 12 people per square kilometer. The capital and largest city is Ashgabat, which is home to a significant portion of the population.

Turkmenistan is known for its diverse ethnic makeup, with Turkmen being the largest ethnic group, accounting for about 85% of the population. Other ethnic groups include Uzbeks, Russians, Kazakhs, and Baloch. The official language of the country is Turkmen, which is spoken by the majority of the population.

What are the top 3 languages spoken in Turkmenistan?

Turkmen is the dominant language spoken by the majority of the population in Turkmenistan. It is an official language and serves as the primary means of communication in the country. However, there are several other languages spoken by different ethnic groups and communities within Turkmenistan. Here are the top three languages spoken, besides Turkmen:

  1. Russian: Russian holds a significant position in Turkmenistan due to historical reasons. It was the lingua franca during the Soviet era, and even today, a large portion of the population speaks Russian as a second language. It is commonly used in business, education, and government sectors.

  2. Uzbek: Uzbek is another widely spoken language in Turkmenistan, primarily by the Uzbek minority population. The Uzbeks have a significant presence in the northern regions of Turkmenistan, particularly around the border with Uzbekistan. Many Uzbeks are bilingual, proficient in both Uzbek and Turkmen.

  3. Kazakh: Kazakh is spoken by the Kazakh minority community, mainly residing in the western regions of Turkmenistan. The Kazakhs are predominantly nomadic herders and have maintained their distinct language and culture. While Kazakh is not as widely spoken as Turkmen or Russian, it holds importance within the Kazakh community.

These three languages, along with Turkmen, contribute to the linguistic diversity of Turkmenistan, reflecting the country’s multicultural heritage.

Official language of Turkmenistan

Turkmen language

The Turkmen language is the official language of Turkmenistan. It is spoken by the majority of the population and holds a significant cultural and historical importance in the country.

Turkmen is a Turkic language, belonging to the southwestern branch of the Turkic language family. It is closely related to other Turkic languages such as Turkish, Uzbek, and Kazakh.

The Turkmen language has a rich literary tradition and has been written in various scripts throughout history, including Arabic script, Latin script, and Cyrillic script. In 1993, Turkmenistan adopted a modified version of the Latin script as its official writing system.

Being the official language, Turkmen is used in all official government communications, education, and media. It plays a crucial role in preserving the unique cultural identity of Turkmenistan and serves as a unifying force among its diverse population.

While Turkmen is the primary language spoken in Turkmenistan, it is worth noting that there are also significant populations of speakers of other languages in the country. These languages include Russian, Uzbek, and Kazakh, which are spoken by various ethnic communities residing in Turkmenistan. However, in terms of prevalence and official status, the Turkmen language remains the dominant and most widely spoken language in the country.

Other languages spoken in Turkmenistan

Russian language

Russian is one of the most widely spoken languages in Turkmenistan, alongside Turkmen. It holds significant importance due to historical and cultural ties between Turkmenistan and Russia. The Russian language has been widely taught in schools and universities throughout the country, and it is often used in government institutions, business, and media. Many Turkmenistan citizens are bilingual or have a good understanding of Russian, making it easier for them to communicate with Russian-speaking individuals within the country.

Uzbek language

Uzbek is another prominent language spoken in Turkmenistan. It is primarily spoken by the Uzbek minority population residing in the country. The Uzbek language has its roots in the Turkic language family and shares similarities with Turkmen. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the cultural heritage and identity of the Uzbek community in Turkmenistan. Although Uzbek is not as widely spoken as Russian or Turkmen, it is still an important language within certain regions and communities of the country.

Overall, while Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, the presence of Russian and Uzbek languages reflects the diverse linguistic landscape of the country, highlighting its historical, cultural, and ethnic diversity.

According to the article, Turkmenistan is a multilingual country with a diverse linguistic landscape. The top three languages spoken in Turkmenistan are Turkmen, Russian, and Uzbek. Turkmen is the official language of the country and is spoken by the majority of the population. Russian, as a result of historical ties, is widely spoken and serves as a lingua franca in many areas. Uzbek, spoken by the Uzbek minority, is also commonly used. These three languages not only reflect the cultural diversity of Turkmenistan but also play a significant role in facilitating communication and fostering social cohesion within the country.

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