A Guide to the Countries That Share a Border With China

A Guide to the Countries That Share a Border With China

China, the world’s most populous country, is located in East Asia and shares its borders with 14 neighboring countries. This comprehensive guide provides detailed information about each of these countries and their unique cultural, geographical, and historical significance. Whether you are a traveler, a student of international relations, or simply curious about the world, this article aims to offer valuable insights into the diverse nations that form China’s border, including Russia, India, Pakistan, and more. Explore the rich heritage, natural wonders, and diplomatic relations of these countries as you embark on a journey to discover the fascinating tapestry of China’s borderlands.

Neighboring Countries


China and Russia share the longest international border in the world, spanning over 4,200 kilometers. This border stretches from the eastern tip of Russia’s Siberian region to the northeastern part of China. The border is demarcated by the Amur River and the Ussuri River, which serve as natural boundaries between the two countries. The border region between China and Russia is known for its diverse landscapes, including mountains, forests, and vast grasslands. The close proximity between China and Russia has fostered strong economic, cultural, and political ties, leading to increased trade and cooperation between the two nations.


China and India share a border that extends for approximately 3,500 kilometers across the Himalayan mountain range. The border between the two countries is known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and is a subject of ongoing territorial disputes. The region is characterized by its challenging terrain, with high peaks, deep valleys, and harsh weather conditions. Despite the border disputes, China and India have maintained diplomatic relations and engage in trade activities. The border region also serves as a gateway for cultural exchanges between the two ancient civilizations.


China shares a border with Kazakhstan in its northwestern region, stretching for approximately 1,700 kilometers. The border runs through the vast and sparsely populated Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and the expansive steppes of Kazakhstan. The border serves as an important trade route between China and Kazakhstan, facilitating the transportation of goods and fostering economic cooperation. The region is also significant for its cultural exchanges, as it connects the Turkic-speaking people of Kazakhstan with the Uighur ethnic minority in China.


China shares a border with Pakistan in its southwestern region, spanning over 500 kilometers. The border between the two countries is located in the mountainous terrain of the Karakoram range, with some of the world’s highest peaks, including K2 and Nanga Parbat. The border region is of strategic importance as it connects China’s Xinjiang region with Pakistan’s Gilgit-Baltistan region. China and Pakistan have developed close diplomatic and economic ties, with various infrastructure projects, such as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), enhancing connectivity and trade between the two nations.

In summary, China shares borders with several countries, each offering unique landscapes, cultural exchanges, and economic opportunities. The neighboring countries of Russia, India, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan play significant roles in shaping China’s regional dynamics and fostering international relations.

Border Disputes


India shares a long and complex border with China, stretching over 3,488 kilometers. The border between the two countries is known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC). However, the precise demarcation of this border has been a subject of dispute, resulting in occasional tensions and conflicts between the two nations.

The major point of contention between India and China is the region of Aksai Chin, located in the western part of the Himalayas. India claims this area as a part of its territory, while China asserts that it falls under the jurisdiction of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang.

Another disputed area is the state of Arunachal Pradesh, which China claims as part of its southern Tibet region. This has been a longstanding dispute between the two countries, and it has resulted in several military standoffs and territorial conflicts in the past.

Efforts to resolve these border disputes have been ongoing, with both countries engaging in diplomatic talks and negotiations. However, a mutually acceptable resolution is yet to be reached, and the border tension continues to be a significant issue in the bilateral relationship between India and China.


Nepal shares a relatively smaller border with China, spanning approximately 1,389 kilometers. The Nepal-China border is defined by the majestic Himalayan mountain range, presenting unique challenges for border demarcation.

While there have been no major border disputes between Nepal and China, there have been occasional disagreements regarding the exact location of the border in certain areas. These disagreements arise due to differences in historical records, cartographic interpretations, and local perceptions.

However, it is worth noting that Nepal and China have maintained friendly and cooperative relations over the years. Both countries have expressed their commitment to resolving any border-related issues through peaceful dialogue and diplomatic channels.


Bhutan, a small landlocked country nestled in the eastern Himalayas, shares a border with China spanning approximately 470 kilometers. The border between Bhutan and China has been a subject of dispute for several decades.

The main point of contention between Bhutan and China is the region of Doklam, also known as Donglang, which is claimed by both Bhutan and China. In 2017, a military standoff occurred in Doklam when China attempted to construct a road in the disputed area. This standoff lasted for several weeks and was eventually resolved through diplomatic negotiations.

Bhutan and China have been engaging in talks to address the border dispute and find a mutually agreeable solution. The two countries have maintained peaceful relations and have expressed their commitment to resolving border issues through peaceful means.

In conclusion, while China shares borders with several countries, including India, Nepal, and Bhutan, there are ongoing border disputes between China and India, with the regions of Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh being major points of contention. Nepal and China have had occasional disagreements regarding border demarcation, but they have maintained friendly relations. Bhutan and China have a longstanding border dispute concerning Doklam, but both countries are committed to finding a peaceful resolution.

Economic Relations


China and Russia share one of the longest international borders, stretching over 4,200 kilometers. The economic relationship between these two countries has significantly improved in recent years. Both nations have been working together to enhance trade and investment ties, leading to the development of a strategic partnership.

Trade: The bilateral trade volume between China and Russia has been steadily increasing. In 2020, the total trade volume reached approximately $107 billion, despite the challenges posed by the global pandemic. China is one of Russia’s major trading partners, and the economic cooperation between the two countries continues to strengthen.

Energy Cooperation: Energy cooperation plays a crucial role in the economic relations between China and Russia. The two nations have been actively collaborating in various energy projects, including oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation. The construction of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline has further deepened their energy partnership.

Investment: China and Russia have also been promoting investment cooperation. Both countries have implemented policies to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) from each other. Chinese companies have invested in sectors such as manufacturing, agriculture, infrastructure, and technology in Russia, while Russian businesses have invested in China’s energy, transportation, and manufacturing sectors.


China shares a border with India in the Himalayan region, which has led to a complex relationship between the two countries. While political tensions have occasionally strained their economic ties, both nations have recognized the importance of maintaining a stable economic relationship.

Trade: Trade between China and India has witnessed significant growth over the years. In 2020, the total trade volume between the two countries reached around $87 billion. China is one of India’s largest trading partners, and both nations have been working to address trade imbalances by enhancing market access for various products.

Technology and Manufacturing: China and India have been exploring opportunities for collaboration in the technology and manufacturing sectors. Chinese companies have invested in Indian startups and technology firms, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship. Additionally, India has become an important market for Chinese manufactured goods, including electronics, automobiles, and consumer products.

Tourism: Tourism has played a role in strengthening economic ties between China and India. Both countries have seen an increase in tourist arrivals, with Chinese tourists visiting India to explore its rich cultural heritage, while Indian tourists travel to China for business and leisure purposes. Efforts to promote tourism have further contributed to the economic relations between the two nations.


Sharing a border in the southern part of China, Vietnam has developed a multi-dimensional economic relationship with its neighbor. The economic ties between China and Vietnam have expanded significantly, driven by trade, investment, and cooperation in various sectors.

Trade: China and Vietnam have established a comprehensive strategic partnership, which has led to a robust trade relationship. In 2020, the total trade volume between the two countries reached approximately $133 billion. China is Vietnam’s largest trading partner, and both nations have implemented measures to further enhance bilateral trade and address trade imbalances.

Manufacturing and Supply Chains: Vietnam has emerged as an important destination for Chinese manufacturers looking to diversify their supply chains. Many Chinese companies have invested in Vietnam’s manufacturing sector, taking advantage of the country’s skilled labor force and competitive production costs. This cooperation has contributed to the economic development of both nations.

Infrastructure Development: China and Vietnam have also collaborated on infrastructure development projects. China has been involved in the construction of highways, ports, and other infrastructure projects in Vietnam, promoting connectivity and facilitating trade. This cooperation has not only boosted economic relations but also strengthened people-to-people exchanges.

In conclusion, China’s economic relations with Russia, India, and Vietnam have witnessed significant growth over the years. These countries share borders with China and have developed various forms of cooperation, including trade, investment, and infrastructure development. The economic ties between these nations continue to expand, contributing to regional development and fostering mutually beneficial relations.

In conclusion, China shares its borders with 14 countries, making it one of the most geographically connected nations in the world. Each neighboring country brings its own unique culture, history, and geopolitical significance to China’s border regions. From the towering mountains of the Himalayas to the vast plains of the Eurasian Steppe, the diverse landscapes and relationships between China and its neighboring countries have shaped the region’s history and continue to play a vital role in shaping its future. Exploring the countries that share a border with China offers a fascinating glimpse into the rich tapestry of cultures and civilizations that have flourished in this part of the world for centuries.

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