Iran: Which Countries Share a Border with It?

Iran, a country located in the Middle East, shares its borders with several nations. In this article, we will explore the countries that have a common border with Iran. Understanding the geographical connections of Iran is crucial for comprehending its regional dynamics and influences. Join us as we delve into the neighboring countries of Iran and examine the significance of these bordering nations.

Neighboring Countries


Iran shares a significant border with Iraq, spanning approximately 1,458 kilometers. The two countries have a long history of political, cultural, and economic ties. The border between Iran and Iraq is a crucial crossing point for trade and transportation, facilitating the exchange of goods and services between the two nations. Additionally, due to their proximity, the border has witnessed various geopolitical dynamics and conflicts over the years.


The border between Iran and Turkey stretches for around 499 kilometers, connecting the two countries. This border has historical significance as it has been a trade route for centuries, fostering economic and cultural exchanges. The proximity has also led to close diplomatic relations and trade partnerships between Iran and Turkey. Moreover, the border region is characterized by diverse ethnic groups and shared cultural heritage.


Iran shares a border of approximately 44 kilometers with Armenia. This border serves as a vital connection point between the two countries, facilitating trade and transportation. The Iran-Armenia border region is known for its scenic landscapes and historical sites. The border has played a role in fostering cultural exchanges, especially in terms of art, music, and cuisine.


Iran shares a border of around 765 kilometers with Azerbaijan. The border region has significant geopolitical importance due to its proximity to the Caspian Sea and abundant energy resources. The Iran-Azerbaijan border has witnessed both cooperation and tensions, particularly regarding territorial disputes and ethnic conflicts. Despite occasional challenges, the two countries maintain diplomatic relations and engage in trade and cultural exchanges.


The Iran-Turkmenistan border spans approximately 1,148 kilometers, making it an important point of connection between the two nations. The border region is characterized by shared cultural influences and historical ties. It serves as a crucial trade route, facilitating the exchange of goods and energy resources. Additionally, the border region is known for its diverse ethnic groups and cultural heritage.


Iran shares a border of about 936 kilometers with Afghanistan. The Iran-Afghanistan border region has witnessed various political and security challenges due to the ongoing conflicts in Afghanistan. However, the border also serves as a gateway for trade and transportation, allowing for the exchange of goods and humanitarian aid. The two countries have a history of cultural and linguistic ties, which further contribute to their bilateral relations.


Iran shares a border of approximately 959 kilometers with Pakistan. The Iran-Pakistan border region is characterized by a mix of diverse ethnic groups and cultural influences. The border serves as a significant trade route, facilitating bilateral trade and economic cooperation. Additionally, the border region has witnessed challenges related to security and illegal activities, which require collaborative efforts between the two countries to address effectively.

Overall, Iran shares borders with several countries, each contributing to a unique set of political, economic, and cultural dynamics. These neighboring countries play a crucial role in shaping Iran’s regional relationships and influence.

Geographical Features

Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea, located in the northern part of Iran, is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth. It stretches across the northern border of Iran, forming a natural boundary between Iran and its neighboring countries. With a surface area of about 371,000 square kilometers, it is roughly the size of Japan. The Caspian Sea is not only important for its size but also for its rich biodiversity. It is home to various species of fish and other marine life, making it a vital ecosystem in the region.

Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf, located in the southern part of Iran, is another significant geographical feature that shares a border with the country. It is an extension of the Indian Ocean and is bordered by Iran to the north and the Arabian Peninsula to the south. The Persian Gulf is renowned for its strategic importance due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas. It plays a vital role in global energy markets and is a major shipping route for oil tankers traveling to different parts of the world.

Gulf of Oman

The Gulf of Oman is situated along the southeastern coast of Iran, forming another border for the country. It is an arm of the Arabian Sea and connects to the Persian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. The Gulf of Oman is known for its diverse marine life, including coral reefs, dolphins, and various species of fish. It serves as an important trade route for maritime commerce and is a significant hub for fishing and other maritime activities.

Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains, located in western Iran, act as a natural barrier and form a border with neighboring countries. This mountain range spans approximately 1,600 kilometers, extending from northwest Iran to the southern parts of the country. The Zagros Mountains are characterized by their rugged terrain, deep valleys, and high peaks, with Mount Dena being the highest at 4,409 meters. These mountains are not only geographically significant but also culturally and ecologically important, serving as a habitat for various plant and animal species.

In conclusion, Iran is blessed with diverse geographical features that contribute to its unique landscape. From the Caspian Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in the south, and not to forget the majestic Zagros Mountains in the west, Iran’s borders are shaped by these natural wonders. Understanding the geographical features of Iran helps to appreciate the country’s rich biodiversity, strategic importance, and cultural heritage.

Historical Significance

Ancient Persia

Ancient Persia, also known as the Achaemenid Empire, was one of the most influential civilizations in history. It stretched from the Nile River in Egypt to the Indus River in present-day Pakistan. This vast empire had a significant impact on the surrounding countries, including those that share a border with modern-day Iran.

Islamic Persia

Following the rise of Islam in the 7th century, Persia became an Islamic state. The Islamic civilization thrived in Persia, and it played a crucial role in shaping the region’s culture, language, and architecture. The influence of Islamic Persia spread to neighboring countries, many of which still share a border with Iran today.

Persian Empire

The Persian Empire, also known as the Sassanian Empire, existed from 224 to 651 CE. It was one of the largest empires of its time, extending its boundaries across vast territories, including parts of present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan. The Persian Empire left a lasting impact on the region, influencing the neighboring countries both culturally and politically.

The historical significance of Persia, from ancient times to the Islamic and Persian Empires, has shaped the geopolitical landscape of today’s Iran and its neighboring countries. Understanding this rich history provides valuable insights into the cultural, political, and economic dynamics of the region.

Iran shares borders with seven countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. This strategic geographical location plays a significant role in Iran’s political, economic, and cultural interactions with its neighboring nations. The diverse landscapes and historical ties between Iran and its bordering countries contribute to a complex and dynamic regional dynamic. Understanding Iran’s borders is crucial for comprehending the country’s geopolitical position and its influence in the Middle East and Central Asia.

Share This Post: